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Cultural Diversity chapter 2-2 Cultural Variation- Sociology
Transcript of Cultural Diversity chapter 2-2 Cultural Variation- Sociology
– Violent, competitive and jealous towards others.
Prior to government intervention, the Mundugumors were headhunters.
Due to their hostility towards others, the Mundugumor live
in isolated homes.
Family lineage is traced through the practice of the “rope.”
– e.g. Father, daughters, daughters sons, his daughter’s sons etc.
Very little contact is provided for children with their parents or other elders.
Practice Polygamy (the more wives the wealthier and more powerful a man is) The Mundugumor Explain the difference between a cultural trait, cultural complex, and a cultural pattern. Provide an example using something from American culture which clearly shows a cultural trait, complex and pattern. (you may use a graphic organizer to help with your explanation)
There are 5 components of culture which Sociologist look for in all cultures being studied. Identify 4 of these components and explain how each component makes up a part of the larger culture.
Describe the study conducted by Margaret Mead in the 1930’s. Be sure to explain where this study occurred, who she studied, what she was looking for in this study and the conclusions she made from this study.
Explain why ethnocentrism can have a negative impact on a society and provide an example of this occurring. Explain how a society can avoid being ethnocentric. (What practice can be used and what does this practice entail)
What causes cultural variations with societies? Provide 3 examples of cultural variations within American culture
Define what the term counterculture means and present an example of a counterculture movement explaining the changes that this counterculture is trying to make. Do you think that this counter culture has made a lasting impact? Explain. Short answer questions Subculture How can ethnocentrism be avoided when comparing cultures?
By using Cultural Relativism
This is idea that cultures should be judged by their own standards
When using a good Sociological Perspective we can understand a different culture from the point of view of the society.
Understand why certain societies develop certain values, norms, etc. What problem can arise when comparing cultures?
Ethnocentrism- viewing your own culture as superior, a belief that your own culture is correct.
People in all societies are at times ethnocentric.
Often times more technologically advanced cultures view themselves as superior. Studying Cultural Variations What factors account for the vast cultural differences between these two societies?
Arapesh (mountains) food producers
Mundugumor (river valley) hunters and gatherers
– Food Production
Arapesh (food scarcity common)
Mundugumor (food plentiful)
Mead summarized that the differences were of a cultural, not a biological basis. Comparing the Two Societies The Arapesh are a non-aggressive society.
They live in close knit villages in which complete cooperation is the key to their survival.
Aggressive acts are not tolerated within their society.
Elders and children engage in several activities together so that the
young can learn from them.
The Arapesh are considerate people who care for
their fellow village members.
Marriages are arranged by the family.
Patrilocal describes a society or custom in which a married couple settles with or near the husband's family
Patriarchy The Arapesh Why do different cultures exist?
Is it more nature? (the way people are born, inherited)
Is it more nurture? (learned behavior, cultural influences) Cultural Variations Identify the three levels of culture studied by sociologist and explain how they are related. (you may use a graphic organizer to help with your explanation)
Discuss the conclusions of Margret Mead research concerning temperament, explain how she arrived at her conclusion.
3. Describe the environmental factors that might account for the differences between the Arapesh and the Mundugumor
4. Explain what ethnocentrism is, how it is different from cultural relativism and why extreme ethnocentrism can cause a culture to stagnate? Essay Questions Stated that the make up of families varies from culture to culture.
The family ensures that new members will be added to society and cared for until old enough to fend for themselves.
Made the argument that in all cultures the purpose of families is the same. George Murdock Anthropologist
Examined 100’s of different cultures.
Looked for general traits that were common to all cultures.
Compiled a list of over 65 Cultural Universals.
Examples: Body adornment, cooking, dancing and family, feasting, greetings, folklore, religion, sports, tool making. George Murdock Cultural universals – general traits common to all cultures
Exist because some needs are so basic that all societies must develop certain features to ensure their fulfillment
Can you think of examples?
Families caring for children Cultural Universals George Murdock-
Section 2: Cultural Variation CHAPTER 2
Cultural Diversity 1. List five examples of material culture and five examples of nonmaterial culture.
2. What is language, and why is it such an important part of culture?
3. How do folkways, mores, and laws differ? List three examples of each type of norm.
4. How do cultural traits, cultural complexes, and cultural patterns differ?
5. How did Margaret Mead contribute to the study of cultures?
6. What is ethnocentrism? How does it differ from cultural relativism?
7. How are subcultures and countercultures related? Chapter Wrap-Up Subculture – shared values, norms and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population
Counterculture – rejection of the major values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replacing them with a new set of cultural values Factors That Account for Variations Among and Within Cultures A concern is if a society does not compare its culture then it could stagnate, stop looking for new influences
–Limiting the number of immigrants into a society can cause this.
Extreme ethnocentrism can also lead to conflicts such as wars. Ethnocentrism Concerns Anthropologist
Tried to determine if differences in basic temperments result mainly from inherited characteristics or from cultural influences. (nature vs. nurture)
She studied several small societies in New Guinea: The Arapesh and The Mundugumor
She determined that temperment is mainly the result of culture rather than biology. (Nurture sets the tone of the culture not nature) Margaret Mead Describe cultural universals and explain why they exist.
Explain what the terms ethnocentrism and cultural relativism mean.
Identify factors that account for variations among and within cultures. Objectives: Example of Subculture
Chinatown in San Francisco
The Chinese use broad American traits, like going to public school, playing with toys, and working at similar jobs.
The culture of Chinatown includes Chinese language, specific foods, and celebrations not shared by most Americans. (Chinese New Year) (usually celebrated sometime in late January to mid February) Edwin Sutherland Anthropologist
Wrote a book titled "Cannibals and Kings".
Studied the religious prohibition in India against killing cows even when food shortages exist.
Suggested that this prohibition was related to the development of India’s agriculture.
Cows aren’t eaten but are widely used to plow the land for planting and for their milk.
Based upon this one can understand the need for the prohibition of killing cows. Marvin Harris Criminologist
Developed the idea or concept of Subculture, through his work on crime and juvenile delinquency.
In addition to deviant subcultures, sociologist today recognize age, gender, ethnic, religious, political, geographic, social-class, and occupational subcultures. Edwin Sutherland belief that a culture should be judged by its own standards rather than by those of another culture the tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to other different cultures Example Example Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism How can a subculture be both positive and negative for society?
Examples of counterculture movements in recent American history?
The old older Amish are a good example of a counterculture.
They have done everything they can to demonstrate their separation from the world around them.. Can you come up with examples for the two terms?