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Types of Music

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Abigail Lewsader

on 23 November 2016

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Transcript of Types of Music

Types of Music:
What Type of Music Do You Enjoy?

Major Artists
Bach 1685 - 1750
Folk Songs
The Spiritual and Gospel Vs. The Blues
Spiritual
connects to
slavery
in the U.S.
In the fields slaves, stolen from their homelands, worked their lives away. Their only promise of hope and freedom coming to them in the heavenly afterlife.
The spiritual and African Americans:
1. A way to articulate and preserve roots
2. A meaning to their suffering
3. Demonstrated their demand to a rightful place in society

Emphasizes

God's personal concern for each person
, however, obscure that person may be in the eyes of other mortals.
As the spiritual developed, it was made more and more complex by church choirs and soloists - each adding their individual interpretations
Transported by religious ecstasy, they created the new genre of gospel music (Janero 175)
Ragtime and Jazz
Before Jazz there was Ragtime...
Melting Pot:
Rock n Roll
All the previous varieties of music go on to influence a new genera in music, rock n' roll.

One of the greatest composers of all time
At the beginning career "[...] considered a mere employee hired to play the church organ and compose a few hymns" (Janero 164)
"[...] ended up revolutionizing the art of music" (Janero 164)
During Bach's lifetime, musicians were considered employees as opposed to artists.
Musicians served as entertainment for court
Bach , early in career, spent less than a year as a court musician
Bach's duties included menial tasks
Music was for court entertainment and preformed for upper-class amusement. (Janero 163)
Bach's music epitome of the
baroque movement
, a highly complex style not only of music but of art and architecture as well. (Janero 164)
Other terms associated with Bach's music:
Counterpoint
Fugues
Toccata

Beethoven 1770 - 1827
Beethoven composed for:
Churches
Concert halls
Small salons
Private performances
Royal chambers
And above all, for himself
Beethoven
lost his hearing

during the peak of musical career. Beethoven composed just
nine symphonies
. Quality over quantity, most of Beethoven's pieces were twice as long as his contemporaries. (Janero 166)
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony was composed ~1818 when he was totally deaf. It is a piece easily four times the length of Mozart's symphonies. Beethoven's work pushes the human voice farther than many believed possible. (Janero 168)
When the Berlin Wall fell in the 1980's, it was German composer, Beethoven, whose work was chosen to show the united Germany. This one work is over an hour long!
Controversy surrounding Beethoven's final movement in the Ninth

Some critics say it takes us as close to the gates of heaven as we can get in an earthly lifetime.

Some called it a musical embarrassment, totally unsingable. One soprano, declared Beethoven had no respect for the female voice.

Others suggested that in his deafness Beethoven heard extraordinary sounds, not contained within the boundaries of music and for which there were no known instruments.

(Janero 169)
What do you think having heard it?

Art Songs
An art song is a part of the concert repertoire of great singers. (Janero 169)

The art song:
The
classical period,
epic poems were sung by minstrels as a means of being more easily remembered.
The
early

Middle Ages
, monks sang prayers as regular part of their worship service.
The
later Middle Ages
, wealthy aristocrats demanded songs as part of court entertainment, and the subject almost always involved love. (Janero 169-170)
Franz Schubert 1797 -1828
Schubert genius of the art song:
Composed more than 600 songs
Wrote painstakingly for both singers and accompanist
Classic example of an artist whose genius is not recognized during life
Died in obscurity at the young age of 31


Most famous work - "Ave Maria"
There is a legend that Schubert, who was chronically poor, wrote the piece idly on a napkin and sold it to someone for the equivalent of fifteen cents.
"Ave Maria" by Schubert
Joan Baez and Bob Dylan are two twentieth century artists who are elemental to American folk music.
Folk songs follow few aesthetic rules
Don't require expert musical accompaniment or trained voices.
Traditional folk songs handed down from generation to generation and changed every time they were sung.
Many versions of the same song.
Folk songs endure the test of time and promote group solidarity.
Modern Folk
Commemorative folk
Work song
Accumulation song
Scoundrel song
Narrative Song
Commemorative song dates back before people had written records, and the way to record important events was through song. However, they are not just relics of the past. Today, commemorative songs are still written to capture significant events.

Don McLean's "Bye, Bye, Miss American Pie" (1971)
Embodiment of Dionysian Personality
The scoundrel song - lawless, irresponsible, but charming. They are about people who are fun to associate with briefly, but not the ones we marry or put in charge of an important operation.
An Irish favorite of the scoundrel song it "The Wild Rover," which upholds a life of drinking, carousing, gambling, and avoiding work.
Work song = Highly durable
Work songs usually seen in two forms:
1. Reflects hardships and a state of tension between management and labor
2. Jolly and full of bounce and joy to help work run smoother
One of the earliest types of songs we learn as children. It's deliberately drawn out, with verse after verse and a refrain repeated after each one.
Tells a story
Folk version of an epic, usually filled with accounts of wondrous and miraculous events
Bob Dylan and John Lennon - two great folk minstrels to protest the Vietnam War
Narrative is still alive and strong especially in country music
"Blues are songs of despair, but gospel songs are the songs of hope." Mahalia Jackson
The genre had its origins, as did ragtime and jazz, in the songs
sung by slaves

after a grueling day in the fields.
The workers sought an outlet for depression.
However, as the form became caught up in the entertainment industry of jazz, sophisticated composers and singers turned old songs into
haunting expressions of sadness
that found ready listeners among audiences of varied backgrounds.
Memphis
Home of the Blues...
Blues musicians sharpened their craft in Memphis, playing in the alleyways off Beale Street. Mississippians like
Ike Turner, B.B. King, and Howlin’ Wolf
all passed through Memphis, often pausing to record a record before moving to a better life. Other musicians stayed in Memphis, unwilling to start over in unfamiliar cities like Chicago, St. Louis, and Los Angeles.
Did you know?
The idea of the word "blue" meaning saddness shows how much this musical genre has penetrated culture. The term "blues" derives from the melancholy mood produced by music that made liberal use of the half-tones in the African scale, the so-called "blue notes."
B.B. King 1925 - 2015
Bessie Smith
1894 - 1937
Billie Holiday 1915-1959
Ragtime emerged from the
African American
community and its musical traditions, transformed by the influence of
European
styles.

Ragtime dates to the turn of the 20th century - a time when privileged upper class Americans emulated Victorian manners and were entertaining guests with salon orchestras playing stately waltzes.

However, at the same time the less privileged, eager to take advantage of the freedom to pursue upward mobility wanted to show everyone they were capable of creating elegance of their own.
(Janero 176)
Scott Joplin (1868-1917) is acknowledged as the master of ragtime. He began his career in backrooms and honky-tonks but became a national celebrity with the publication of "Maple Leaf Rag" in 1899.
Can you hear the
syncopation
?
"Do not play this piece fast. It is never right to play Ragtime fast." - Scott Joplin
Understanding the
context
of the time -
ragtime
was a melting pot of culture and rebellion against the status quo...
The musical roots of
jazz
are embedded in the history of the U. S. and the cultures it combined.
During the late 19th century, African American musicians went to
New Orleans
where they studied European genres and rhythmic patters. They brought with them a knowledge of their own traditional sounds.
The typical scale used in African music contains five tones (
pentatonic scale
) instead of the European scale fo seven (
diatonic scale
). The New Orleans musicians tried to combine the two without sacrificing the African scale.
The result?
Added half-tones, blue notes, to the five-tone scale. From ragtime they borrowed syncopation. The synthesis of all these strains made possible the evolution of jazz.
One thing all jazz musicians have in common is knowing how to maintain a balance between control and the need for soaring release.
Louis Armstrong (1901-1971)
Duke Ellington (1899 -1974)
George Gershwin
(1898-1937)
As jazz evolves,
improvisation
continues to be a major characteristic.
Jazz instrumentalists and composers admire
Bach
because he more or less invented improvisation. Jazz soloists are known for going off on lengthy variations, often improvising for ten or fifteen minutes before returning to the theme.

One motive behind jazz improvisation is to explore the potential of one's instrument and take it to places no one else had ever found.
Rock Pioneers:
-Muddy Waters ( 1913-1983)
-Chuck Berry (b. 1926)
-Little Richard (b. 1932)
-Elvis Presley (1935 -1977)
-Jerry Lee Lewis (b. 1935)
Rock N' Roll and breaking down the racial barriers
Note: Vulgar language in video
Musicians description of Rock N' Roll
Beginnings of Rock N' Roll
Thank You Electric Guitar!
The roots of
The Beatles
American Music after The Beatles (beginning) / Beatles fall from grace (8.27 min)
Watch the first 10 min or so...
RELIGION and MUSIC
Bach's music grew out of religion
Protestant Reformation sparked by Martin Luther in 1517
Protestant churche interiors were stark and wooden in comparison to the Catholic baroque churches
Lutherans shunned elaborate visual ornamentation of their churches
Music was a different case
Music became especially important in the Lutheran service, for which Bach composed many of his works (Janero, 164)
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