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Idioms as a way of enriching the English vocabulary

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Gulmira Berkimbayeva

on 28 May 2014

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Transcript of Idioms as a way of enriching the English vocabulary

Kostanay State Pedagogical Institute
Foreign languages department
The chair of English
Idioms as a way of enriching the English vocabulary
The methods
of the research:

The object:

the process of
enriching the English
vocabulary
study and analysis of the literature

generalization
Berkimbayeva Gulmira
Scientific supervisor:
Kinzhibayeva A.S.
The subject:
idioms in the
English language

The aim:

to define possibilities of using different methods and ways for learning vocabulary
The hypothesis of the research:

Idioms as a way of enriching vocabulary
make our language more colourful.

The objectives
of the research:
to study the theoretical literature on the topic
to define the origin of idioms and general characteristics of idioms;
to analyze the use of idioms describing feelings and emotions in the novels;
description
Nowadays this theme is up-to-date as every learner must be ready to meet the challenge simply because idioms occur so frequently in the spoken and written English.
Idioms in the
English language.


One of the interesting things about idioms is that they are anomalies of language, mavericks of the linguistic world. The very word idiom comes from the Greek idioms – “peculiar, strange”.

[G. Philip - 'Idioms' The Linguistics Encyclopedia, 3rd edition. London, 2007]
[Y.Lisova – English: What is an idiom? №9/2010 p.25]
The origin of English idioms.
IDIOMS
from
religious
from
historical
events
from our everyday life
from other sources
[Larson, M. Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross Language Equivalence. University Press of America, New York. 1984]
Comparative feature of English idioms.
Different variations of idioms
describing feelings and emotions.
English and American scholars treat set expressions mostly as a problem of applied linguistics; they have concentrated their efforts on compiling dictionaries of idiomatic phrases.


[F. Cermak – International Journal of Lexicography 14(1) 2001]
[Gibbs, R.W. Jr. 1985. On the Process of Understanding Idioms. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research]
Classification of idioms based on semantic structure and syntactic feature.
*Classification of phraseological units according to the type of motivation. (V.V.Vinogradov)
[Кунин А.В. Английская фразеология. М., «Высшая школа»,1970]
[Plutchik, R. The circumplex as a general model of the structure of emotions and personality. In Circumplex Models of Personality and Emotions. (pp.17-46), ed.R.Plutchik and H.R.Conte. Washington: American Psychological Association Press. 1997]
The use of idioms as an important way of describing feelings and emotions.
Analysis of the value of feelings and emotions idioms on the basis of in
W.M. Thackeray “Vanity Fair” and
J.Austen “Sense and sensibility”.
The aims and objectives of analysis
“Vanity Fair” (1847-48)
- is a novel by English novelist William Makepeace Thackeray. 47 chapters of this novel were studied with the aim to analyse idiomatic expressions about emotions and tried to classify them according to the semantic classification by (V.V.Vinogradov) and structural classification. (A.I.Smirnitsky)

The procedure of the research.
W.M. Thackeray’s novel “Vanity Fair”
"as wise as Solomon", "work like a Trojan "
[A People and A Nation: A History of the United States. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.]
"God preserve us",
“pride goes before a fall,
“a thorn in the flesh”.
[Larson, M. Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross Language Equivalence. University Press of America, New York. 1984]
“to keep one’s shirt on”,
“to give somebody the cold shoulder”, “to make (both) ends meet”,
“catch one's eye”;
[Goren, D., & Wilson, H. R. (2006). Quantifying facial expression recognition across viewing conditions. Vision Research, 46, 1253-1262. 2005.10.028]
The aim of the analysis:
is an attempt to identify idioms concerning feelings and emotions, analyze their semantic peculiarities in the novels: “Vanity Fair” by W.M. Thackeray and “Sense and Sensibility” by J. Austen. and compare the use of idioms describing feelings and emotions by different authors.

To achieve the set aim we determine the following tasks:

 - To find idioms concerning feelings and emotions in these
novels;
 - To classify idioms (based on semantic structure and
syntactic feature);
 - To identify the translation, the meaning and the type of
idioms with the help of dictionaries and using the worked
out classification.
 - To make a quantitative and percentage analysis of English
idioms’ usage in two novels and to generalize the data in
diagram.
 - To make conclusions of the research results.
According to the novel “Vanity Fair” we have found only 30 idioms about emotions and feelings.

- Negative/collocation -
34.5
%
- Negative/unities -
10.3
%
- Negative/fusion -
10.3
%
- Positive/collocation -
27.6
%
- Positive/unities -
6.8
%
- Positive/fusion -
3.5
%
- Neutral/collocation -
3.5
%
- Neutral/unities -
3.5
%
- Neutral/fusion -
0
%
According to the novel “Sense and sensibility” we have found only 15 idioms about emotions and feelings.


- Negative/collocation -
22.2
%
- Negative/unities -
13
%
- Negative/fusion -
6.5
%
- Positive/collocation -
10.4
%
- Positive/unities -
9
%
- Positive/fusion -
7.8
%
- Neutral/collocation -
14.3
%
- Neutral/unities -
9
%
- Neutral/fusion -
7.8
%
Conclusion
Idioms are a particularly important part of the English language. They are frequently used in a wide variety of situations, from friendly conversations and business meetings to more formal and written contexts.
Idioms make our speech more expressive, vivid, and imaginative.

According to the novel “Vanity Fair”
- one-top unit - 23 %
- two-top unit - 77 %
According to the novel “Sense and sensibility”
- one-top unit - 18 %
- two-top unit - 82 %
The scheme for the analysis of idioms.
J. Austen’s novel “Sense and Sensibility”
“Sense and sensibility” (1818)
- is a novel by English novelist Jane Austen. 50 chapters of this novel were studied with the aim to analyse idiomatic expressions about emotions and tried to classify them according to the semantic classification by (V.V.Vinogradov) and structural classification. (A.I.Smirnitsky)
have a corner in smb.'s heart.
(быть любимым кем-л., вызывать нежные чувства у кого-л., завоевать чьё-л.сердце). I am sure that the widow and the child whom you have ever protected and loved will always have a corner in your heart. (ch. XLIII)
Meaning:
to feel that you like someone very much
According to the semantic classification
this idiom is phraseological unity.
According to the structural classification
this idioms is two-top unit
According to the types of idioms
this idioms is positive
According to the classification of Emotions
this idioms is love
laugh smb. to scorn (laugh smb. (or smth.) to scorn (pour scorn on smb. Or smth.))
высмеивать кого-л. (или что-л.), относиться с презрением к кому-л. (или к чему-л.). The newspapers laughed the wretched upstart and swindler to scorn. (ch. XXVI)
Meaning:
poke fun at (smb or smth)
According to the semantic classification
this idiom is phraseological collocation.
According to the structural classification
this idioms is two-top unit
According to the types of idioms
this idioms is negative
According to the classification of Emotions
this idioms is anger
out of countenance.
(в смущении, в замешательстве; сбитый с толку). To stare Becky out of countenance required a severer glance than even the frigid old Bareacres could shoot out of her dismal eyes. (W. Thackeray, ‘Vanity Fair’, ch. XXXVII)
Meaning:
be at a loss
According to the semantic classification
this idiom is phraseological fusion.
According to the structural classification
this idioms is two-top unit
According to the types of idioms
this idioms is negative
According to the classification of Emotions
this idioms is fear
Burst into tears of joy
(плакать от радости). “Elinor could sit no longer. She almost ran out of the room, and as soon as the door was closed, burst into tears of joy, which at first she thought would never cease” (J. Austen, “Sense and sensibility” ch. XLVIII).
Meaning:
cry a lot
According to the semantic classification
this idiom is phraseological collocation.
According to the structural classification
this idioms is two-top unit
According to the types of idioms
this idioms is negative
According to the classification of Emotions
this idioms is sadness
A heavy heart
(with a heavy heart; heavy-hearted) a light heart). (печаль, уныние; с тяжёлым сердцем). "Our dear Willoughby is now some miles from Barton, Elinor," said she, as she sat down to work, "and with how heavy a heart does he travel?" (J.Austen, “Sense and sensibility” ch.XV)
Meaning:
a feeling of unhappiness;
According to the semantic classification
this idiom is phraseological unity.
According to the structural classification
this idioms is two-top unit
According to the types of idioms
this idioms is negative
According to the classification of Emotions
this idioms is fear
Go off at halfcock
(go off at half(-)cock (go off half-cocked)). (действовать или говорить сгоряча, необдуманно; рубить сплеча, случайно выстрелить (о винтовке); That Lucy had certainly meant to deceive, to go off at halfcock of
malice against him in her message by Thomas, was perfectly clear to
Elinor;… (J.Austen, “Sense and sensibility” ch.XLIX)
Meaning:
to start before arrangements are complete, and failing as a result;
According to the semantic classification
this idiom is phraseological fusion.
According to the structural classification
this idioms is two-top unit
According to the types of idioms
this idioms is neutral
According to the classification of Emotions
this idioms is surprise

1. G. Philip - 'Idioms' The Linguistics Encyclopaedia, 3rd edition. London, 2007
2. Y.Lisova – English: What is an idiom? №9/2010 p.25
3. Carter, R. (1993). Introducing Applied Linguistics. London: Penguin books.
4. Mc Carthy & O‟del. (2002). English Idioms in Use. Cambridge: CUP.
5. G. Philip - 'Idioms' The Linguistics Encyclopaedia, 3rd edition. London, 2007; p.127
6. Rosamund Moon – Fixed expressions and idioms in English, Oxford : Clarendon Press, 2003 p.87-89
7. G. Philip – An idiomatic theme and variations, Birmingham, ELR Monograph 18, 2000 p.13
8. Larson, M. Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross Language Equivalence. University Press of America, New York. 1984 p.18
9. The Wordsworth Dictionary of Idioms. Ed. E.M. Kirkpatrick and C.M. Schwarz. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1995.
10. A People and A Nation: A History of the United States. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
11. Кеңесбаев І.К. Фразеологиялық сөздік – Алматы: Арыс, 2007-798 б
12. Fernando, C. (1996). Idioms and Idiomacity. London: Penguin books.
13. Nida, A. & Taber R. (1982). The Theory and Practice of Translation. Netherland: Ej. Brill Leiden.
14. O’Grady, William. 1998. The Syntax of Idioms. In Natural Language and Linguistic Theory
15. F. Meunier, S.Granger – Phraseology: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Amsterdam: Benjamins, p. 95-108, 2008
16. Goren, D., & Wilson, H. R. (2006). Quantifying facial expression recognition across viewing conditions. Vision Research, 46, p.125-126. 2005.10.028
REFERENCES
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