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Coming to America

Migration and exploration of early peoples into modern America.
by

Robert Rhodes

on 9 September 2016

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Transcript of Coming to America

With the loss of some resources, early americans had to find new methods of survival
Creativity
Ingenuity
New opportunities
Adaptation (technology) =
Survival
Coming to America
Which came first? Chicken, Egg, or Native Americans
ICE AGE: 22,000 years ago native asians cross the Bering Strait tracking large game
Temps warmed 10-12,000 yrs ago
Sea levels rise

Europeans Come to America
Why did the spanish seek to colonize the Americas?

What was the impact of European contact with American Natives?

The American Colonies Emerge
Where did Europeans first colonize in the "modern US?"

What was life like for these early "American settlers?"

Why did they come?

Where did we come from?

Who were the first people to inhabit America? How long ago?

What did early settlers do for us?

Why do we even care?
Objectives
1. Explain how ancient peoples arrived
in America and settled there.

2. Describe the diverse cultures that
developed in North America.

What benefits does the wooly
mammoth provide?
Big Game Hunters
Nomadic Lifestyle
def: moved from place to place

Lack reliable food source
How can that affect the size of a population of peoples?
Agriculture Develops
Hunting & Gathering

Farming Develops
Horticultural & Agricultural Societies
Growing food to sustain populations (maize, gourds, peppers)
What does this mean for societies?
Stability & Complexity of group ... Huh?

Surplus
of Food allows populations to grow.
If you can't feed your kids, why have more?

Crops create
stability
because people don't have to find food.

Now ... ALL of us don't have to run around chasing deer, catching fish, or collecting berries to survive. (
division of labor
)

We have time to sit around and think about how to make life better ...
complex
societies develop: potters, weavers, weaponsmiths, and other trades develop.

But now ... economic differences between people develop which leads to
POWER (chiefs) = governments = civilizations
How does the development of agriculture lead to a more complex and stable society?
How does the development of agriculture lead to more stability and complexity of societies?

Surplus
of food allows for population growth.
After all, why have more kids if you can't feed them.

Stable
food source: We ALL don't have to chase deer, fish, or pick berries for survival. Why leave if the food is here? (Maize, gourds, peppers) Develop permanent settlements.

As food sources become more reliable, we have time to sit around and think about making life better: potters, weaver, weaponsmiths (
complexity
)

Economic differences (jobs) create inequalities ... POWER differences

POWER (chiefs) = Government = Civilization


What may have affected the migration patterns of early
native Americans?
Based on research, identify and describe cultural characteristics of a given native american tribe.

Create a power point or prezi to present your findings to the class. (
share with Mr. Rhodes
)

You will:
Describe what was their lives were like:
Where did they live?
Describe the environment & geography where they lived.
What did they grow, hunt, eat?
What were their homes built of?
What was their religion/gods?
Describe the tools/technology available to them.
Create
at least one artifact from your tribe: ceremonial mask, tool, jewelry



Why did Europeans seek
this new land? (Identify at two reasons.)

How would you react if an "alien" knocked on your front door? Explain.

How did the natives react?

In what ways could this meeting be beneficial for both?
Why do some people hail Columbus' achievements as historic and heroic?

Why do others see his legacy as one of bloodshed and cruelty?
Columbus' letter to Queen Isabella
(Groups)

How do you think Columbus's writings foreshadow natives' future in America?
"It would be unnecessary to build ... [a fort here] because these people are so
simple in deeds of arms
.... If Your Highnesses order either to bring all of them to Castile or to hold them as captivos [slaves] on their own island it could easily be done, because with about fifty men you could control and
subjugate
them all, making them do whatever you want."

--Christopher Columbus
--
Columbus: The Great Adventurer
What's that?
Columbus Meets the Natives
Columbus


HERO or VILLAIN
HERO?
What's good about Columbus's discovery of the New World?

Modern View

Historical View
Villain
Why might his discovery be considered bad?
Columbus the HERO
First step in creating the US (symbol of freedom and liberty worldwide)
Discoveries of new resources & land
Great wealth to Europe
"
Sacrifice necessary for the sake of progress
"

Examples
Native Death/Enslavement vs. Economic Growth
WWII casualties vs. Spreading Freedom
Columbus the Villain
Spreading disease
Approximately 300, 000 die
WHY?
Europeans are GODS?
Killing Natives
Enslaving Natives
Disease & African slaves
Inflamed European rivalries (war over new conquests and expansion)

Counterpoint
: "If there are necessary sacrifices to be made for human progress, is it not essential to hold to the principal that those to be sacrificed must make the decision [to be sacrificed] themselves."
Counterpoint
:
Columbus was a man of his time and ought not be condemned for acting according to the values of the age in which he lived.
What role did disease in the Americas play in the beginning of the African slave trade?
approximately 100,000 natives remain in Hispaniola by 1508 (of the original 400,000)
By 1570, two villages remain

So why did Europeans start enslaving Africans?

Approximately 12-13 million slaves came from Africa
Columbian Exchange
Originally Natives resist Christian conversion. Resistance is useless and Natives give in.
Why do Natives begin viewing Europeans as Gods?
European Conquests
?
An Alternative Look at History

What really happened?
Colonizing America
Spanish Conquest
First Discovery Then Exploitation

Conquistadors
: "A disease of the heart that only gold could cure."

Prospects of Gold and Silver

Juan Ponce de Leon
(1513)
"La Florida" searching for Fountain of Youth
St. Augustine (nation's oldest city)

Hernando Cortes
(1520) invades Mexico's Aztecs
Montezuma
gets stoned in
Tenochtitlan
Resistance works but immunity fails (1521)
Forced Labor (doing what?)


English Settlements at Jamestown
John Smith
(1606)
Establishes a "stock-company" to pool investment in America (Virginia)
Charter
(permit) granted by King James I

Virginia Company: investors receive gold and silver discovered

Jamestown
: established April 1607 (town name honors King James of England
Puritan New England
Who were the Puritans?

Who were the Pilgrims?

Why did Puritans come to America?

What was life like for the pilgrims?
From this to this
St. Augustine, Florida
Castillo de San Marcos
Protects Spanish & British
Ponce de Leon
What was the purpose of colonizing the New Land?
Problems
for the English Colonists
150 original settlers

Gold Fever
If everyone is mining gold and silver, who is growing food?
Many people were among the "privileged" class in England ...

Famine
By winter 1607, 38 colonist remain
Diseased water & no food
John Smith and
Powhatan
help colonists survive
How?

Natives
600 new settlers arrive
What do you think were the concerns of the Powhatan?
What will be the response of the Powhatans?
What would be your response?
Powhatan Response

Kill livestock
Destroy farms
1622: attacked villages and killed 340
How do the colonists survive
with no crops or livestock?

60 colonists survive but eventually stabilizes

1614: colonists hostile to Natives
Kidnapped Children and Chief's daughter "
Pocahontas
"

Mystery of Roanoke
Jamestown wasn't really the first settlement, but probably the first to succeed.

1585
: colony established on
Roanoke
Island
1587
: Sir Walter Raleigh sends Captain John White back to England for supplies
1590
: White returns to an empty settlement ... colonists vanished?

What really happened to the colonists?

"Croatoan" carved into a tree ... what does this mean?
A New Kind of Fortune
Tobacco
is
King
long before cotton

1612: Jamestown grows high-quality tobacco that Europe craves

1.5 million pounds of
"brown gold"
to England per year

Labor is absent ... so how to harvest?

Indentured servitude ... European and African?

Late 1600s: slaves increase. Why?
What's the difference with this and slavery?
By 1644, 10,000 English live in the colony.
Will the real Pocahontas please stand up?
What do you know about the Puritans?
K W L

Who were the Puritans?
Church members that wanted to reform the church of England
Too much Catholic Ritual
Too extravagant
Puritans wanted to Purify the Church
Fix the Church or Break Away (
Separatists
) ... and get persecuted
Split from Church of England (only legal church)

Create a Holy community or religious utopia
If you were to create a perfect society, what would it look like? Rules, Values, Jobs, City Plan
How would you make sure people followed the rules of your new society?

Would there even be rules?

Would there be a government?


Mayflower Compact
(1620)
Pilgrims had to answer those questions and more
Before getting off their ship, the pilgrims knew that some sort of laws had to be established to ensure a peaceful, harmonious, and pious life in the New World.
Mayflower compact created a basic set of goals or rules to create a stable life
.
Is this the real thing?
Signing the Mayflower Compact
Life in Puritan Communities
1620: Arrive (off course) in Pl
i
mouth, Massachusetts
102 men, women, children with little cargo/supplies
Very structured around Church and the Bible
High Literacy rate. Why?
Left Europe to escape religious persecution, but wanted EVERYONE to worship the Puritan way.
Nonconformists persecuted: fines, banishment, whippings, imprisonment
So much for "Religious Freedom
"

How do the Puritans still affect us today?
First Amendment
Freedom of Religion

Old Deluder's Satan Act (Massachusetts Bay School Laws)
Compulsory education
for children
Do all kids still have to go to school?

Separation of Church and State
What does this mean to us today?
What did this mean in colonial times to the Puritans?
Is what were taught, really what was meant? Did our History and government books lie to us?

Declaration of Independence
(1776)
Illustrates the ideas that “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

Self Government
Idea that they created own government and chose its leaders (Mayflower Compact and colonial legislatures)
Leads to "
popular sovereignty
"

Make your own path in life
Acquire wealth through hard work
Leads to expansion to find wealth

Social & Political Justice
Everyone had the opportunity to succeed (hard work)
Voting rights given to all men of the church (not just wealthy)
Equality, Fairness, and Justice for all people

What were the
beliefs of the Puritans
?
To the Puritans,
a person by nature was inherently sinful and corrupt, and only by severe and unremitting discipline
could they achieve good
. Each person should be constantly
reformed by the grace of God
to combat the “indwelling
sin” and do the right before God. Thus, they considered hard work a religious duty and laid emphasis on constant
self-examination and self-discipline. They believed that
man was duty-bound to do God’s will
, so he could understand
best by studying the Bible and the universe which God had created and which he controlled.

Puritans advocated a humble and obedient life
. They also emphasized private study of the Bible. They believed
everyone is the priest for themselves.
Compared to Catholic
Priests & Latin
Key puritan beliefs and values


A. Godly people were sober, hardworking, and responsible. English society had been corrupted by foreign influences
and by disorder and needed to be purified.
B. Catholicism had undermined the relationship between God and the individual
C. Election & predestination – God chooses who is saved and who is damned. No one can earn salvation through works.
Yet the saints are responsible for their actions.
D. The congregation of saints chooses its members, hires and fires its ministers, and recognizes no other religious
authority.
E. Worship should be plain, lack mystery, and be focused on God, No stained glass, instrumental music, or art.
F. Much value of education
G. Intolerance – error must be opposed and driven out
Major Difference with the Church of England
Puritans’ “justification-by-faith” concept led to the
denial of Pope’s authority
, and bridged the gap between God
and man. That is, every Christian can communicate directly with God through his faith to Him, and
every one can be his
own priest
. So, the minds of Christians were emancipated from rigid Roman Catholicism. In this sense, personal values were stressed, and one’s soul became more free and independent.

William Bradford's handwritten history, Of Plymouth Plantation, made about 1630
Puritan Poet


Anne Bradstreet

What is the emphasis of her poems?
During the Ice Age ...

What impact would global warming have on the animals and practices of people?
Slave Trade: Natives vs Africans
Limited number of Natives
Natives know the land
Africans are used to the heat,
humidity, and labor
Slave trade up and running in Africa
https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/american-indians/resources/cultures-americas-1200-bc%E2%80%93ad-1600
Use the link below to Gilderlehrman.org.
Choose a group from one of the following cultures
Mound Builders
Mississippian Culture
Central & South America (Mesoamerica)
Southwest
West Coast
Great Basin & the Plateau
Far North
Great Plains
Eastern Coast & Woodlands
Southeast

Essential Questions

1. What role did the rise of agriculture play in early settlers creating lasting civilizations in the Americas?
2. What difficulties did early Americans face when establishing settlements?
3. What lasting influences did early Americans have on our modern political and social landscape?


Guiding Questions

1. Who were the first "Americans?"
2. How did the Ice Age influence immigration patterns to the Americas?
3. What is the Beringia Land Bridge and how is that theory changing?
4. How did Ice Age warming impact the growth of American civilizations?
5. How can Columbus's discovery of "America" be described as both bad and good?
6. What were the driving factors for Europeans to establish settlements in the New World?
7. Who were the Spanish Conquistadors and what impact did they have in America?
8. What impact did Europeans have on Native Americans?
9. What were the fundamental beliefs of Puritans?
10. What are the lasting effects of Puritan values that continue to influence our government and society?
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