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Janette Morales

on 1 June 2015

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Transcript of CNA FINAL

LAB: 2

Physical changes with age

Risk factors for skin breakdown

Types of wounds


Daily Cares

Applying Topicals
Musculoskeletal System
Strenth and tone decrease
Bone become weaker
Hip and knee joints become flexed
Nervous System

Brain/spinal cord lose nerve cells
Reflexes slow
Reduced blood flow to brain
Shorter memory
Cardiovascular System
Heart rate becomes slightly slower and your heart might become bigger.
Blood vessels and your arteries become stiffer, causing your heart to work harder to pump blood through them.
High blood pressure (hypertension) can lead to other cardiovascular problems.
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Urinary System
Kidney function decreases
AM Care = Morning Care
HS Care = Bedtime Care/Evening Care
Types of Bathing
Comfort, health, well-being

Prevent disease

Body odors and breath odors


Assisting with elimination

Providing perineal care

Assisting with hygiene

Oral Care

Helping into sleepwear

Back rubs

Straightening Room
Assisting with elimination

Providing perineal

Assisting with hygiene, dresssing, and gooming

Getting ready for meals - oral care

Making beds and straightening room

Assisting with activity (ROM, ambulation etc.)

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Topicals are considered medications
***Thicker does not always mean better
Aplly with gloved finger, tounge blade, Q-tip, etc
Medicated shampoos need to be used for indicated use only
Violation of Client Rights

Infection Control


Military Time

Medical Aspepsis

Negligence- Failure to give care that is reasonably expected

Abuse: To treat badly, injury, berate, insult or mistreat

Assault: A threat or an attempt to commit bodily harm

Battery: An assault that is carried out

Slander: Oral defamation of character

Libel: Defamation of character in writing, signs, or pictures

Fraud: Saying/doing something to trick, fool or decieve a person
Federal government passed a law called HIPAA in 1996 - Protected health information

Patient Privacy Rights
-Access their health information

-Request an amendement to their PHI if they feel information is incomplete or inaccurate

-Request a place to receive PHI

-Request restrictions on what PHI can be disclosed

-Request an accounting of what PHI has been disclosed
Asepsis: Being free of disease producing microbes

Medical Asepsis: (Clean technique) practices used and precautions taken to prevent the spread of microorganisms from one person/object to another
Surgical Asepsis: (Sterile technique) the practices that keep items free of all microbes
Nonpathogen: Microorganism that does not ordinarily cause infection
Pathogen: Microorganism that is harmful or capable of causing infection or disease
Microorganism: Small living plant or animal that can only be seen with the aid of a microscope
Contact Transmission
Direct: Body surface to surface contaact and physical transfer or microorganism

Indirect: Involves touching of contaminated objects used by an infected person
Lab 3




AAROM: Active Assistive Range of Motion
AROM: Active Range of Motion
PROM: Passive Range of Motion
Contracture: Lack of join mobility caused by abnormal shortening of the muscle
Atrophy: Decrease in size or wasting away of muscle

BR: Bed rest
Strict bedrest: Bed pan ex. Spinal Cord
Bedrest c BRP: Bathroom
Abduction: Moving a body part away from midline of the body
Flexion: Bending a body part
Extension: Straightening a body part
Hypertension: Excessive straightning of a body part
Dorisflexion: Bending the toes and the foot up at the ankle
Plantar flexion: (Footdrop) When the foot falls down at the ankle
Internal Rotation: Turning a joint inward
External Rotation
: Turning a joint outward
: Turning a joint downward
: Turning the joint upward
Opposition: Ability to move the thumb into contact with the other fingers
Friction: When one surface rubs on another
Shearing: When skin sticks to a surface while muscles
Logrolling: Turning the person as a unit, in one motion
Lift Sheet: (Draw Sheet) On bed to be used when positioning resident
Supine: (DorsalRecumbent) back-lying
Prone: Lying on the abdomen with the head turned to one side
Fowlers: Semi-sitting position c HOB elevated 45-90 degress
Sims position: Left side lying position in which the upper leg is sharply flexed so its not on the lower leg and the lower arm is behind the person
Lift sheet
Trochanter Roll: Prevent hips and legs from turning outward (external rotation)
Abduction wedges: Keep the hips abducted
Hand rolls or hand grips: Prevent contractures of the thumb, fingers, and wrists
Splints: Keep the elbows, wrists, thumbs, fingers, ankles, and/or knees in aligment
Bed cradles: Keep weight of linens off the feet/legs
Foot board: (drop foot) Planter flexion
Lab 4
Key Terms

Types of Nutrients


Urinary Elimination
Aspiration: Foreign object into airway (food + liquids)

Dehydration: Lack of water (decrease of fluid in body tissue

Dysphagia: Difficulty swallowing ex. Esophagus

Edema: Swellig of body tissues

Gastrostomy tube: Tube inserted into stomach

Graduate: Measuring container for fluid

Intake: Fluids into body

Nasogastric tube (NG tube) Feeding tube-nose>stomach/suction

Nutrition: How we use food/fluids

Output: Amount of food lost

NPO: "Nothing by mouth"
Protein: Tissue growth ad repair (heal) ex. mucous membrane, cells, nails, etc.

Carbohydrates: Energy and fiber

Fats: Energy, vitamins need

Vitamins: Body functions

Minerals: Potassium, phosphorus, zinc, calcium, nerve/muscles functions
Clear-liquid: Acute Illness

Full-liquid: Body temperature

Mechanical Soft: Semi-soild food (baby food)
Fiber-and residue restricted: Cgrome disease, diarrhea

High Fiber: Ulcer, gall bladder disease, easy to digest

Bland: Chemically/mechanically irrating

High calorie: underweight, ill, active people

Calorie controlled: "diet" High quality foods

High Iron: Ammenic people

High Protein: Body builders, healing
Lab 5
Types of Pain

Key Terms



Death and Dying

Stages of Dying
Acute: Rapid pain

Chronic: Always feeling pain

Radiating Pain: Pain felt by nearby areas

Phantom Pain: Feeling pain that's no longer there
Vertigo: Dizziness

Tinnitus: Ringing in the ear

Cerumen: Earwax

Otitis Media: Infection of medial of ear

Aphasia: Inability to use/understand language
Otitis Media: Infection of the middle ear; if chronic permanent hearing loss can occue
Meniers Disease: Chronic diseae of the inner ear; can result in tinnitus, vertigo, and hearing loss
Hearing loss: Difficulty hearing conversation
Advanced Directive: Document explaining wishes once not able to
Postmorem Care: Care given after pnounce death
Rigor Mortis: Stiffness of muscles after death
Terminal Illness: Injury for which there is not reasonable end ex. cancer
Hospice Care: Care done if person has a "death date"
Denial: Did not happen
Anger: Why?
Bargaining: If only...
Depression: Crying
Acceptance: Peace
Lab 6
Oral: Use blue tip of thermometer
-Less than 6 years old
-Recieveing oxygen
-Seizure disorder

Rectal: Red tip thermometer
-Rectal Disorder
-Heart disease
-Confused or agitated
-Used when other sites can't
Rectal: 99.6

Tympanic: 98.6

Oral: 98.6

Axilla: 97.6
-Wheelchair and stretcher Safety
3.Equipment Accidents
Fire Safety:
Stroke: Caused when the brain is deprived of it's blood supply due to a blood clot or blockage
Multiple Sclerosis: Chronic disease in which myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord is destroyed.
Hemorrhage: Excessice loss of blood in a short time
Parkinson's Disease: Neurological disease is slow and progressive with no cure... symptoms inlcude stiff muslces, impaired balance, hand tremors etc.
Emphysema: Trapped in he lungs during exhalation... causes a person to develop barrel chest
Myocardinal Infarction: Blood flow to the heart muscle is blocked and blood pressure falls causing pain or numbness or pressure in the chest, neck, left arm or shoulders.
Medical Abbreviations
ADL: Activites of daily living
ad lib: As desires
amb: Ambulate, ambulation
bid: Twice a day
BRP: Bathroom privileges
c/o: Complains of
HS (hs): Hour of sleep
ht: Height
noc, noct: Night
NPO: Nothing per mouth
qod: every other day
s: without
ss: half
tid: 3 times a day
po: By mouth
prn: As necessary
qd: Every day
qid: 4 times a day

Lateral Position: Side lying
Dorsal Recumbent: (supine) Back lying
Check 5 rights:
Right Patient
Right Drug
Right dose (amount)
Right route
Right time

Skin Tear: Break or rip in the skin
Pressure Ulcers: Bed sores/pressure sores
Circulatory ulcers
Stasis: Venous ulcers>>shallow wound that occurs when the leg veins don't return blood back toward the heart the way they should
Arterial Ulcers: Inadequate blood supply
Confined to bed/wheelchair
Mobility problems
Poor nutrition
Poor hydration
Altered mental staus
Problems sensing pain/pressure
Circulatory Problems
Older adults
Integumentary System
-brown spots
-drier hair
-Fewer blood vessels
-Fatty tissue layer is lost
-Skin becomes more elastic
System of techniques used
to prevent infections and reduce the spread of infections
-Ear disorder
-Ear drainage
Glaucoma: Peripheral vision lost

Cataract: Cloudiness

Blindess: Not able to see 200 ft
Urination: Peeing
Urinary incontinence
Polyria: Large amounts of urine
Oliguria: less than 5cc's a day ex. kidney disease
Nocturia: Frequent urination at night
Hematuria: Blood in urine
Dysuria: Difficulty peing
Vital Signs

Site Location


Safety/Fire Safety

Diseases and Life Threatening Situations
Pathogens vs. non-pathogens
Normal Flora
Nosocomial Infection
Medical Asepsis: Clean technique
Surgical Asepsis: Sterile technique
HAND WASHING ((20 seconds))

Muscles weaken
Lung tissue lost
Dificulty breathing
Chest is less able to breathe
Decreased saliva production
Decreased appetite
Loss of teeth
Partial Bath:

Complete Bed Bath: Cleansing of a patient in bed.

Tub Bath:




Safety/Fire drill

Bradycardia: Slow heart rate

Tachycardia: Fast heart heart

Hypertension: High blood Pressure

Hypotension: Low blood pressure

Bradypnea: Slow breathing

Tachypnea: Fast breathing

Dyspnea: Difficulty breathing

Orthopnea: Breathing deep

Apnea: Lack of breathing
Full transcript