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Properties of the Hair and Scalp

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Gloria Talamantes

on 8 September 2015

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Transcript of Properties of the Hair and Scalp

Properties of the Hair and Scalp
All professional hair services must be based on a thorough understanding of the
growth
,
structure
,
and
composition
of the hair.
The understanding of these factors is what separates a professional stylist and a "DIY" person.
Which one do you want to be?
1
2
3
How and why hair grows to be able to differentiate between normal and abnormal hair loss
Why you need to know...
What creates natural color and texture to offer the according services to clients
Being able to identify a scalp condition that could be harboring a disease so that you may render help to your client.
Hair Structure
The study of hair is called "
Trichology
"

Keratinization
a process where live cells fill up with a protein called keratin, they move upward in the hair follicle. As the move up, they lose their nucleus and die. When they emerge from the scalp, the cells of the hair is completely keratinized and no longer living.
Proteins
Amino Acids
Elements
PROTEIN HELIX
Peptide Bond
Amino Acid
Polypeptide Bond
Side Bonds of the Cortex
made up of millions of polypeptide chains, cross-linked like a ladder
3
2
1
responsible for strength and elasticity of hair
Weak bond,broken down by wetting the hair with water, they reform when the hair dries
Weak bond, they depend on the pH; they are broken by alkaline or acidic solutions. Ex: hairspray
Strong, chemical side bond; joins sulfur atoms of two cysteine amino acids to create cystine.They are broken by permanent waves and chemical relaxers that alter the natural shape of hair. Boiling water (extreme heat)
Disulfide BONDS
Thio Permanent waves break disulfide bonds and reform the bonds with Thio neutralizers.
*reducing agent; contains "thiol"= group of compunds
Hydroxide Chemical Relaxers break disulfide bonds and then CONVERTS them to Lanthionine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed. When using hydroxide relaxers the disulfide bonds are permanently broken, and can never be reformed.
Image on
PAGE 224 on Milady
HAIR PIGMENT
Melanin
-tiny grains of pigment in the cortex that give natural color to the hair.
RATIO
SIZE
WAVE PATTERN
Straight
Wavy
Curly
Extremely Curly
Natural Wave patterns are a result of genetics; there are some exceptions, but generally, Caucasians tend to have straight, wavy, or curly hair.African Americans tend to have extremely curly hair.Asians and Native Americans tend to have extremely straight hair.
Usually very fine texture, irregular, low elasticity, breaks easily, and has a tendancy to knot.
LAB: Partner with someone for Friday
BRING A LEMON AND SPARKLING WATER FRIDAY!
ICUT CLUB IDEAS???
HAIR
NAILS
Stage Makeup
Editorial Shoots
HAIR GROWTH
Terminal Hair
VELLUS HAIR
Short, fine, unpigmented hair that almost never has a medulla.
FOUND IN.....
1
2
3
Forehead
Eyelid
Bald Scalp
Women retain 55% MORE vellus hair than men.
Long, coarse, pigmented hair; usually has a medulla.
Grey hair is the exception....
Unpigmented terminal hair
Puberty also affects this; it causes some areas of vellus hair to be replaced with thicker terminal hair.
Growth Cycles
New hair is produced; new cells are actively manufactured in the hair follicle faster than any other normal cell in the human body.
Average growth of a scalp is about 1/2 inch per month; the rate varies on different parts of the body, between sexes, and with age.
About 90% of scalp is growing in the anagen phase at any time. Usually lasts from 3-5 years, but can last up to 10 years. The longer the anagen cycle, the longer the hair can grow.
This is the transition period, between the growth and the resting of the hair follicle.
The follicle canal shrinks, and detaches from the dermal papilla. The hair bulb disappears, and the root end forms a rounded club.
Less than 1% of scalp is in the catagen phase at any time.This stage lasts from 1-2 weeks only.
The resting phase, lasts until the fully grown hair is shed. Either the hair sheds during this place, or remains in place until the anagen phase begins and the new hair pushes the grown hair out of place.
About 10% of the scalp is in the telogen phase at any one time. This phase lasts for 3-6 months.
The entire growth cycle repeats every 4-5 years.
PATTERNS
Hair follicles usually do not grow out of the head perpendicularly, at a 90 degree angle, or in a straight direction; when this happens, the results are whorls or cowlicks.
Let's play a game!
Answer TRUE or FALSE
Shaving, clipping, and cutting the hair on the head makes it grow back faster, darker, and coarser.
Scalp massage increases hair growth.
Gray hair is coarser and more resistant than pigmented hair.
The amount of natural curl is always determined by the racial background.
Hair with a round cross-section is straight, hair with an oval cross-section is wavy, and hair with a flattened cross-section is curly.
HAIR LOSS
For a long time it has been said that a person sheds about 100-150 strands of hair everyday. Recent studies show that the average rate of hair loss is closer to 35-40 hairs per day.
Over 63 million people in the United States suffer from abnormal hair loss.
Types of Abnormal Hair Loss or "Alopecia"
1
2
3
"Androgenic Alopecia"
miniaturization of terminal hair then converted into vellum hair.
Can start as early as teens; seen often by the age of 40. By the age of 35, 40% of men and women show some degree of hair loss.
"Alopecia Areata"
An autoimmune disorder that causes the hair follicles to be attacked by a person's own immune system
The white blood cells stop the hair growth during the anagen phase.
unpredictable, and affects 5 million people in the U.S.
Alopecia"totalis" or "universalis" is when this progresses into complete body hair loss.
"Postpartum Alopecia"
Temporary hair loss experienced at the end of a pregnancy.
There is normal shedding during pregnancy, but sudden excessive shedding from 3-9 months after delivery. Growth cycle returns to normal after 1 year of delivery.
Hair Loss Treatments
Minoxidil
-medication that is put on the scalp twice a day, and has been proven to stimulate hair growth.(OTC)
For both men and women, it comes in 2 different strengths : 2% and 5% solutions. EX: ROGAINE
ONLY FOR MEN!!!
It is more effective and convenient than minoxidil, but side effects include weight gain and loss of sexual function.
Women may NOT use this, and pregnant women should not even touch them because of the strong potential for birth defects.
Hair transplant is the most common permanent hair replacement technique.
The process is removal of small sections of hair, including the follicle, papilla, and hair bulb; from an area where there is a lot of hair, transplanting them into the bald area.
The cost of each surgery can range from $8,000 to $20,000.
We can also offer a variety of hair extensions, wigs, and hair additions.
With proper training you can learn how to fit, color, cut, and style wigs and toupees.
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DISORDERS of the HAIR
canities
Congenital Canities
Born without pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes; and occasionally in individuals with normal hair.
Acquired canities develops with age and is a result of genetics. Can also develop in prolonged anxiety or illness.
RINGED HAIR
Alternating bands of gray and pigmented hair throughout the length of the strand.
Hypertrichosis
abnormal growth of hair; growth of terminal hair in areas of the body that normally grow vellus hair.
Trichoptilosis
technical term for split ends; the only way to remove split ends is by cutting them.
Trichorrhexis Nodosa
Knotted hair; breaks easily, and spreads out like a brush along the hair shaft.
Monilethrix
Beaded hair that breaks easily between the beads, or nodes.
Fragilitas Crinium
Very brittle hair; may split at any part of their length .
Disorders of the Scalp
The average person sheds about 9 lbs. of dead skin each year.
the skin cells of a normal scalp fall of as small, dry flakes.
Dry scalp produce small flakes, and result from contact dermatitis, sunburn, extreme age, and made worse by a cold, dry climate.
DANDRUFF-"Pityriasis"
Shedding of an accumulation large visible clumps of skin cells.
The cause: A naturally occurring fungus called
Malassezia
,but causes the dandruff when out of control.
stress
age
hormones
poor hygiene
Pityriasis capitis simplex
-classic dandruff; scalp irritation, large flakes, and itchy scalp.
Pityriasis steatoids
-more severe dandruff; accumulation of greasy and waxy scales, mixed with sebum, which stick to the scalp in crusts. This can be accompanied by "
seborrehic dermatitis
", redness and inflammation. (Can also be found in eyebrows and beard.)
You should NOT perform a service to a client with this condition. Refer them to a physician.
FUNGAL INFECTIONS (Tinea)
technical word for "ringworm"
All forms of tinea are contagious and can be easily transmitted from one person to another.
tinea capitis
Tinea Barbae "Barber's itch"
Tinea favosa or "tinea favus"
dry, sulfur-yellow, cup-like crusts on the scalp called
scutula
, and it has a distinct odor.
Parasitic Infections
Scabies
-contagious skin disease caused by mites that burrow under the skin.
excessive scratching makes it worse; practice approved cleaning and disinfecting procedures to prevent spreading. DO NOT service anyone with this disease.
Pediculosis Capitis-"Head Lice"
You can distinguish the lice from dandruff by looking closely to the scalp.
Transmitted from person to person, personal articles to person.
DO NOT
service a client experiencing head lice.
Staphylococci Infections
bacteria that infect the skin or scalp
FURUNCLE
(boil)
localized bacterial infection of a hair follicle that produces constant pain
CARBUNCLE
similar to a furuncle, but larger
inflammation of the sucutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci.
Hair and Scalp Analysis
Because different hair types react differently to the same service, it is essential that a thorough analysis of the condition of the client's scalp and hair type.
Hair analysis is performed by using 4 different senses: sight, touch, hearing, and smell.
The 4 most important factors in a hair and scalp analysis is:
texture
,
density
,
porosity
, and
elasticity
.
Hair Texture
is the thickness or diameter of the individual hair strand.
It is normal for the same person to have different textures in different areas of the head.
Nape, crown ,temples, and front hairline are places in the head where there can be different hair textures.
Largest diameter, stronger than fine hair, more resistant in processing.
Most common texture and does not pose any special problems or concerns.
Smallest diameter and is more fragile, easier to process, more susceptible to damage from chemical services.
Density
Measures the number of individual hair strands on 1 square inch of the scalp.
Low
Dense
This is different from texture, individuals with the same hair texture can have different densities.
The average density is about 2,000 hairs per square inch.
The average head of hair contains 100,000 individual hair strands.
Blondes usually have the highest density, and people with red hair tend to have the lowest.
Porosity
Hair's ability to absorb moisture. This is directly related to the condition of the cuticle layers.
Hydrophobic
refers to a compact cuticle layer, where it is resistant to be penetrated by moisture.
Hydrophilic
refers to very porous hair, where the cuticle is raised and can easily absorb moisture.
Low porosity
hair strands are resistant,
average porosity
is normal hair, and
high porosity
is overly porous sometimes because of overprocessing.
Normally coarse hair has low porosity and is resistant to chemical services, unless it reflects high porosity from previous chemical services.
ELASTICITY
The hair's ability to stretch and return to its original length without breaking.
This shows the strength of the side bonds that hold the hair's fibers in place.
Normal
wet
hair will stretch
50%
of its length and return without breaking; normal
dry
will only stretch
20%
of its length.
Hair with low elasticity is weak and breaks easily, and may not be able to hold a curl from wet setting, thermal styling, or permanent waving.
Use milder solution, with a lower pH to prevent further overprocessing.
ON THE SCALP
Hair Patterns
Hair Stream
Whorl
Cowlick
Why is it important to identify Hair Patterns?
Dry Hair & Dry Scalp
Oily Hair & Oily Scalp
VS.
Inactive sebaceous Glands
Appears, dull, dry and lifeless
Avoid excessive shampooing
Dry climates
products with high alcohol content
Greasy buildup on the scalp
oily coating on the hair
Overactive sebaceous glands
Proper shampooing
well-balanced diet
exercise
good personal hygiene
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