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Copy of The American Pageant - Chapter 1
Transcript of Copy of The American Pageant - Chapter 1
The Shaping of North America
Peopling the Americas
The Earliest Americans
Indirect Dicoverers of The New World
- A single supercontinent existed on Earth, but broke apart and formed the major continents of the modern world
- The Ice Age caused the formation of massive glaciers, lowering the sea level, and exposing a land bridge between Eurasia and North America
- Corn became the major food source for the Native Americans within North and South America
- Blonde-bearded Norse seafarers from Scandinavia had chanced upon the notheastern shoulder of North America about A.D.1000
Europeans Enter Africa
New World Beginnings
- Shifting of the earth's crust formed mountain ranges, such as the Appalachians, the Rockies, the Sierra Nevada, and the Coast Ranges
- North America took it's form roughly 10 million years ago. It was anchored by the Canadian Shield and contained many river valleys in its "tidewater" region
- The mountains and valleys formed the continent's landscape and seamed modern day interiors of California, Oregon, and Washington
Columbus Comes upon a New World
- Meanwhile the kingdom of Spain became united, resulted from Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille, the Spaniards were eager to beat their Portugal rival to hit the wealth of the Indies, making them look westward
- The continent was covered in ice and snow for several years. Glaciers carpeted most of present day Canada and the United States
- European consumer and distributors were naturally eager to find a less expensive route to the riches of Asia or to develop alternate sources of supply
- By the time the strange-smelling goods reached Italian merchants at Venice and Genoa, they were so costly that purchasers and profits alike were narrowly limited
- Luxuries of the East were prohibitively expensive in Europe
- Goods that had been virtually unknown in Europe now were craved--silk for clothing, drugs for aching flesh, perfumes for unbathed bodies colorful draperies for gloomy castles, and spices.Europe's developing sweet tooth would have momentous implications for world history
- Restless Europeans, with the growing power of ambitious governments behind them, sought contact with a wider world, whether for conquest or trade
- Landed at a place near L'Anse aux Meadows in present-day Newfoundland
- When the ice melted, the melted glaciers formed the Great Lakes and several other rivers and fresh water source throughout the continent
When Worlds Collide
The Spanish Conquistadores
Conquest of Mexico
Spread of Spanish America
Huge importance was the biological flip-flop of Old and New Worlds. Simply put, we traded life such as plants, foods, animals,
From the New World (America) to the Old
corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc.
From the Old World to the New
cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, Kentucky bluegrass, etc.
devastating diseases (smallpox, yellow fever, malaria), as Indians had no immunities.
The Indians had no immunities in their systems built up over generations.
An estimated 90% of all pre-Columbus Indians died, mostly due to disease.
Treaty Line of Tordesillas 1494: Portugal and Spain argued over who got what land. The Pope drew this line as he was respected by both.
Portugal got everything east of the line (Brazil and land around/under Africa)
Spain got everything west of the line.
Vasco Balboa: discovered the Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan: circumnavigates the globe( first to do it)
Ponce de Leon: touches and names Florida looking for legendary Fountain of Youth
Hernando Cortes: enters Florida, travels up into present day Southeastern U.S., dies and is "buried" in Mississippi River
Francisco Pizarro: conquers Incan Empire of Peru
and begins shipping tons of gold/silver back to Spain.
This huge influx of precious metals caused inflation.
Francisco Coronado: ventured into current Southwest U.S. looking for legendary El Dorado, city of gold. He found the Pueblo Indians.
Encomienda system established
Indians were "commended" or given to Spanish landlords
The idea of the encomienda was that Indians would work and be
converted to Christianity, but it was basically just slavery on a sugar
plantation guised as missionary work.
Hernando Cortez conquered the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan.
Cortez went from Cuba to present day Vera Cruz, then marched over mountains to the Aztec capital.
Montezuma, Aztec king, thought Cortez might be the god Quetzalcoatl who was to re-appear that year. Montezumawelcomed Cortez into Tenochtitlan.
The Spanish lust for gold led Montezuma to attack on the nochetriste, sad night. Cortez and men fought their way out, but smallpox killed the Indians.
The Spanish then destroyed Tenochtitlan, building the Spanish capital exactly on top of the Aztec city.
A new race of people emerged, mestizos, a mix of Spanish and Indian blood.
English: John Cabot (an Italian who sailed for England) touched the coast of the current day U.S.
France: Giovanni de Verrazano also touched on the North American seaboard.
France: Jacques Cartier went into mouth of St. Lawrence River (Canada).
To oppose this, Spain set up forts all over the California coast. Also cities, like St. Augustine in Florida.
Despite mission efforts, the Pueblo Indians revolted in Pope's Rebellion.
Robert de LaSalle sailed down the Mississippi River for France claiming the whole region for their King Louis and naming the area "Louisiana" after his king.
Black Legend: The Black Legend was the notion that
Spaniards brought bad things (murder, disease, slavery) t
They also brought good things such as
law systems, architecture, Christianity, language, civilization, so that the Black Legend is partly
- Nomadic Asian hunters ("immigrants") used the land bridge and settled upon North America
- The end of the Ice Age caused the glaciers to melt, covering the land bridge with sea water and preventing any more immigration
- The end of the Ice Age also melted the ice that blocked the passageway to South America, allowing the immigrants to immigrate even further
- The immigrants eventually split into many tribes with separate languages and customs
- The Native Americans, descent from the immigrants, formed stunningly sophisticated civilizations with effective agricultural methods and suprisingly accurate astronomical observations
- From agriculture to astronomy, the Native Americans showed
- The Native Americans often made human sacrifices to their gods as well
- Cultivation of corn transformed nomadic hunting tribes into elaborate civilizations
- Some Native American civilizations hardly contained any social life, while others developed highly political and organizational skills
- Introduction of squash and beans in about A.D. 1000, allowed for even higher population densities
- Women usually tended the crops while men hunted and gathered. This lead to the development of matri-linear cultures, in which women possessed authority over men
- Due to their isolation, the Native Americans were not exposed to the modern technology of the rest of the world. This allowed North and South American lands to remain primal and untouched
- European appetites were further whetted when footloose Marco Polo, an Italian adventurer, returned to Europe in 1295 and began telling tales of his nearly twenty-year sojourn in China
- Accumulating pressures brought a breakthrough for European expansion in the fifteenth century
- European sailors refused to sail southward along the coast of West Africa because they could not beat their way home against the prevailing northerly winds and south-flowing currents, but in 1450, Portuguese mariners overcame those obstacles through a certain caravel
- The new world of sub-Saharan Africa now came within the grasp of questing Europeans
- Two-thirds of Europe's supply, crossed the Sahara on camel back, but Europeans had no direct access to sub-Saharan Africa until the Portuguese navigators began to creep down the West African coast in the middle of the fifteenth century
- Portuguese promptly set up trading posts along the African shore for the purchase of gold and slaves
- The Portuguese adopted these Arab and African practices by building their own systematic traffic in slaves to work
- Portuguese push father southward in search of the water route to Asia, edging cautiously down the African coast
- Africa had been established as a source of cheap slave labor for plantation agriculture
- Europeans clamored for more and cheaper products from the lands beyond the Mediterranean
- Europe provided the markets, the capital, and the technology; Africa furnished the labor; and the New World offered its raw materials
- Columbus's discovery would eventually convulse four continents -- Europe, Africa, and the two Americas
- After six weeks at sea, failure loomed when , on October 12, 1492, the crew sighted an island in the Bahamas. A new world thus swam within the vision of Europeans
- Christopher Columbus this skilled Italian seafarer persuaded the Spanish monarchs to outfit him with three tiny but seaworthy ships
- In Spain a modern national state was taking shape, with the unity, wealth, and power to shoulder the formidable tasks of discovery, conquest, and colonization