Transcript of 700 B.C. to 323 B.C.
Byzantium-Constantinople 700 B.C.-323 B.C. Social Changes Major Events 330 BC : Constantine founds the new capital of the Roman Empire on the existing site of the ancient Greek city Byzantium: Byzantium was renamed Constantinople and it would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire. 395: The Roman Empire divides in half, with the Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople and the Western Roman Empire based in Rome/Ravenna. 526: Justinian's reign begins. He reconquers parts of the fallen Western Empire (Africa and Italy, Spain). The Hagia Sofia is constructed. Justinian is the last emperor to use the title "Caesar". 610: Heraclius becomes emperor. Temporary possession of Mesopotamia. The theme system is installed. The Empire's language changes to Greek. Eventual Lost of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt to Muslims http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/imperialism/notes/byzantinechron.html 476: The Western Empire Falls: The Eastern Empire survives and now is labeled as the Byzantine Empire. A legend that is part myth and fact tells the story of the founding of Byzantium. Byzas, was a Greek, who consulted the oracle at Delphi. Byzas and other greek citizens wanted to escape Athens and build their own city. The oracle instructed Byzas to settle opposite of "the Land of the Blind." They found an area with the perfect natural harbor where the Bosphorus flowed into the Marmar sea. This was across from a city with a shallower harbor (the land of the blind). They where blind to the strategic trading and defense advantages. Also in Greek mythology Byzas was the son of Poseidon. Another legend of the area and time is the tale of Jason. Jason was searching for the golden fleece that was made of Rams wool that had miraculously turned to gold. Jason found it at a spot along the edge of the Black Sea in Colchis. This is a legendary tale of an early trading exposition. Showing the areas greatness for trade. From 700B.C. to 323B.C. Byzantium went through great social changes. Legend says it started off as Greeks wanting to be away from Athens. They intentionally or unintentionally they founded a great trading city. Thus causing conflicts between the Empires of the Persians, Greeks, Spartans, and Macedonians. Their strategic location to these empires brought with it their culture, art, religion, ect. Leaders 323-337 Constantine the Great- defeated his rival Licinius, adopted Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire, Chose Byzantium as the new Christian capital, Constantine enlarged, strengthened, and beautified the city, he focused on moral, political, and economic welfare of the citizens of the empire. He became ill and died in May of 337 shortly after being baptized Theodosius 1 (The Great) 347-395, the son of the Spanish general Flavius Theodosius, he worked as a military governor in Moesia when his father was killed by Valentinian in 376. After his father died Theodosius withdrew from military life until 379, in 378 and emperor Gratian named him Augustus (co-ruler) of the East. In 381 he signed for an alliance with the Visigoths to keep them under control they had been invading areas of the Empire since 375 instead of becoming part of the Roman Army. In 380, Theodosius issued a law ordering all citizens to believe in the Nicene Creed of the Council in 325 to be considered Catholic Christians. He severely acted against paganism like closing and even destroying temples and ending the Olympic Games. Theodosius became ill and died in 395. He divided the Roman Empire between his two sons. In 590 B.C the city of Byzantium was destroyed by the Persian king Darius the first. Who took hold of most of the empire. In 479 B.C. the city was rebuilt by the Spartans more by a certain person who over took it Pausanias. Pausanias left sparta to make a small kingdom of his own Byzantium is where he decided to make this. Since Pausanias was disliked by both Sparta and Athens for crimes and the dislike of the starting of the new kingdom. they both fought over the city to reclaim it. They did this from 479-340 B.C Athens won control and had control Full transcript
from 336-323 B.C when Alexander the great
died Military Economic Developments A Gateway to the West Byzantium was settled during this time by the Greek king Byzas who settled the city according to a prophecy, which quickly created one of the most influential city's of trade and commerce during ancient and possibly up into the Renaissance. This city served as one of the only gateways between the west and it's exotic riches so whoever controlled Byzantium controlled all of the goods traded between continents. Center for Culture Byzantium's economy centered not only around the trading of goods but the cultures that brought these goods to the table which perhaps made the city the most unique of it's time. This blending of ideas and cultures allowed for both home countries to benefit from trade in Byzantium. Booming Economy Although Byzantium at this point in time had just started to emerge as a kingdom, it's economy steadily rose and soon the city became a bustling place of trade and eventually would become the Mediterranean's largest center of trade, wealth, and commerce. The most important political events of his reign were the establishment of Valentinian III as emperor in the West in 425 and the raids into the Empire by the Huns under Attila. He founded the Constantinople University in 425, declared the Theodosian Code in 438, and restored the City Walls. Theodosius II Justinian I one of the most famous and successful emperors of the Byzantine era after Constantine I he fought against the Persians between 528-530 who invaded Mesopotamia and attacked on the Byzantine lands, and he stopped them because of one of his commanders of the army, Belisarius.
He was in power when Nika Riot destroyed the city and most of its important monuments including Hagia Sophia Church, killing over 30.000 people in five days of urban warfare He managed to end the riot and than he dedicated himself on the reconstruction of Constantinople and its monuments; Hagia Sophia church, Hagia Irene church, Underground cistern were all built under his rule.
He established the Justinian Code in 529 AD uniting all valid imperial laws under one and thus founding the base of almost all legal systems in Europe. Justinian died in 565 AD at the age of 83, after reigning for 38 years. His nephew Justin II took over after him Justinian was buried at the Church of the Holy Apostles in today's Fatih district, which got plundered by the Crusaders and later destroyed by earthquakes.