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Transcript of ...18th Century...
Alexander Pope 1688-1744
18th century English poet
Best known for his satirical verse and his translation of Homer
Pope was taught to read by his aunt and went to Twyford school in 1698/1699 because of the Test Acts (prohibited Catholics from teaching, going to university, voting, or holding public office).
Pope ended his formal education around 1700 and educated himself. He was inspired by Horace, Juvenal, Homer, Virgil, Geoffrey Chaucer, Shakespeare, and John Dryden.
In 1711, Pope became friends with Tory writers John Gay, Jonathan Swift, Thomas Parnell, and John Arbuthnot. Together they formed the Scriblerus Club. The goal of the club was to criticize ignorance and pedantry in the form of fictional scholar Martinus Scriblerus.
Pope’s most famous works are “Essay On Criticism”, “Rape of the Lock”, “Dunciad”, “Moral Essays”, and “Essay on Man”. He also translated the “Illiad”, the “Odyssey”, and some of Shakespeare’s work.
Jonathan Swift 1667-1745
Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet, cleric, and later the Dean of Saint Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin.
His most popular works are Gulliver’s Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, Drapier’s Letters, The Battle of the Books, An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity, and A Tale of a Tub.
He originally published all of his works under aliases, such as, Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, and MB Drapier.
His father died a few months after he was born, so his mother sent him to live with his uncle.
Swift attended Kilkenny college and Dublin University in 1686 where he received his BA. Swift was studying for his master’s when political trouble arisen surrounding the Glorious Revolution in Ireland. He left for England where his mother helped him get a job as a secretary.
Swift was a harsh judge of human nature.
Swift was lifelong friends with Alexander Pope and a member of the Scriblerus Club.
Swift was part of the inner circle of the Tory government. He was often the “mediator” between Henry St John and Robert Harley. Swift recorded these experiences in a series of letters to his friend, Esther Johnson. These letters later became A Journal to Stella. It is also noted that Queen Anne did not like him.
Gulliver’s Travels is also a reflection of his political experiences.
In 1742, Swift suffered a stroke. From that point on, his health began to fail him and he was declared “insane”. He died in 1745.
Glorious Revolution 1688-1689
Also called the Bloodless Revolution
Charles the Second was restored to the throne in 1660, to many Englishmen’s dismay. Charles was not responsive to Parliament, he was tolerate of Catholics, and favored alliances with Catholic powers in Europe. The Whigs, who wanted a Protestant ruler, tried to exclude Charles’s son, James, from the throne but were unsuccessful. After James accession onto the throne, the Whigs and Tory’s allied to overthrow James.
Seven Whig and Tory leaders sent a letter to Dutch prince William of Orange and his wife, Mary, Protestant daughter of James, inviting them to England. William arrived in Devonshire with an army. James forces, under John Churchill, deserted him. James fled to France. Parliament treated James fleeing as him abdicating his title, and William and Mary were crowned rulers.
The Declaration of Rights and Bill of Rights barred future Catholic succession to the throne. The Crown was forbidden to tax or have an army in peacetime without the permission of the Parliament. William and Mary had to agree to these terms before they could accept the throne.
American Revolution 1765-1783
The roots of the revolution can be traced to 1763.
The colonist were upset about Britain not allowing them to settle in the West and the arrival of British troops.
The most serious problem was the need of money to support the empire. The colonies had to pay taxes (Sugar Act, Stamp Act, and the Townshend Acts).
Tension increased after Parliament passed the Coercive Acts. They were in response to the Boston Tea Party and were used to punish Massachusetts as a warning to other colonies. The Port Act, which closed the Boston Port until the East India Company had been repaid for their destroyed tea. The Quartering Act, which forced colonist to house British soldiers if other suitable quarters were not available.
The British had many advantages during the war. Large, well-trained army and navy, and many Loyalist who supported them.
America’s advantages were that they were under the leadership of George Washington and they had the aid of France.
Britain almost defeated the Continental Army several times, but the battles at Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey restored patriotic hope. Another important battle was the battle of Saratoga, which stopped a British advance on Canada and led France to intervene on behalf of the rebels.
In 1781, an American and French force defeated the British at Yorktown, Virginia. This was the last major battle of the American Revolution.
By: Jyla Smith & Jewelle Horton
Fremch Revolution 1787-1799
King Charles II (The Exiled Stuart King) Was Restored to The English Throne
French Revolution began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte.
During this period, French citizens redesigned their country’s political landscape, uprooting centuries-old institutions ( such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system.)
Was Influenced By Enlightenment Ideals like the concepts of popular sovereignty and inalienable rights
Birth Of A Novel
Novelist became better known Than Poets, and prose forms of writing ,such as essays increased in popularity.
By the 1740's the Novel rose to dominate the literary martplace with writers such as Henry Fielding, Samuel Richardson and Lawrence Stern defining its form and its modes of representing the private lives of individuals
The Augustan Era
Popular writers of the Augustan Era were Swift, Defoe, Pope, Addison, and Steele.