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Health and ill health

Health and ill health

junaid khaliq

on 2 June 2015

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Transcript of Health and ill health

Arric Hospital
Models of health
The Battle Begins
...EHR Options!
Number of providers: 400 physicians of varying specialties
350 beds
Users: Authorized medical staff
More than 50 departmental components/ specialty areas

$ $$$ $$

Flexible tabs are customizable
Naturally integrates MU2 and ICD-10
Quick view of problems, diagnoses, and medications
Clean look
Focus on patient care
Costly- might hinder
Health and ill health
Understanding different concepts of health and ill health
What is health?
What is ill health?
Concepts of health
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
Sociologists have great difficulty in agreeing on definition of being healthy
Can be defined in negative terms as absence of disease
Contrasted with positive definition (WHO)
Negative concept of health is therefore opposed to a positive concept of health .. as being concerned with peoples physical, intellectual social and emotional well being
In the health and social care sectors .. care professionals adopt holistic approach to care and support
See role as addressing needs of the whole person rather then single or identified issues
Person with complex needs ..such as young mother with multiple sclerosis may be supported by range of professionals
Each have particular roles and responsibility for her care and support
GP, community nurse, occupational therapist, social worker and health visitor
But Mildred Blaxter (1990) .. interviewed 10,000 people and identified three strands to peoples understanding of health and well-being
- Positive definition ..regarding health as feeling fit and well
- Negative definition .. regarding health as being free from pain or discomfort
- Functional definition .. regarding heath in terms of being able to perform certain ..day to day tasks
Defining health is not easy .. and there is no clear agreement
Most sociological research within health and between societies focuses on issues of ill health
Sociologists use great deal of information about death rates, visits to GP surgeries, incidence of serious diseases, admissions to mental health unites and suicide statistics
Data analysed by social class, occupation, ethnicity, gender, age and geographical location
Information can be measured statistically and is clearly defined
Much more difficult to measure positive indicators of health, peoples physical, intellectual, social and emotional well-being
Health promotion.. process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants... thereby improve their health
Number of different approaches to promoting health
Three key models of health have influenced health promotion
Focuses on risk behaviours and healthy lifestyles
The biomedical model of health
Emphasises health education – changing knowledge, attitudes and skills
Focuses on individual responsibility
Treats people in isolation of their environments
The social model of health
Addresses the broader determinants of health
Involves inter-sectoral collaboration
Acts to reduce social inequities
Empowers individuals and communities
Acts to enable access to health care
The ecological model of health
Acknowledges the reciprocal relationship between health-related behaviours and the environments in which people live, work and play (behaviour does not occur in a vacuum)
Considers the environment is made up of different subsystems – micro, meso, exo and macro
Emphasises the relationships and dependencies between these subsystems
Comprehensive and multi-faceted, using a shared framework for change at individual and environmental levels
Opinion of these three models??
Biomedical model
Model of health that has dominated western industrialised
View of health underpins policies an practice of the NHS
Health is largely regarded as the absence of disease .. and intervention of health professionals is necessary during illness
Main purposes of health services is to cure disease.. and health professional use scientifically tested methods to address diagnosed diseases
Focus on the individual patient is a limitation of this model
Little regard paid to environmental and social factors which lead to ill-health
Many causes to illness .. but biomedical approach focuses on individual and ignores environmental factors
Biomedical model
This model fits well with functionalist perspective .. in which illness is regarded as dysfunctional for society
ill people cannot make their normal contributions to smooth running of society
For the functionalist .. if people adopt sick role and exempt from social responsibilities ... they have responsibility to co-operate with health professionals and take all reasonable steps cure illness
Socio-medical model
Focuses on the social factors that contribute to health and well-being in our society
During late nineteenth/early twentieth century .. life expectancy rose.. death rates fell (especially child mortality) .. improvements in sanitation .. provision of clean water .. new council houses .. general improved standards of living
Long before 1948 and introduction of universal free personal care through NHS
Evidence supports that environmental and social condition's are source of disease .. and causes of ill health not solely located in the individual
Model sits easily with conflict theories than functionalists
Conflict theorists explain shorter life expectancy and higher rates of ill health among the poor as consequences of inequality in society and life circumstances of the disadvantaged
Socio-medical model
The poor are more likely to have inadequate diet and live in damp houses (often inner city - unemployment and environmental pollution have most impact)
Ruling groups in society unwilling to make changes needed to protect the poor form ill health and disease
Clear focus on individual diagnosed with illness .. and concerned with environmental causes of illness
Both models are complementary approaches to study of heath and illness
Biomedical - identifies health as absence of disease and focuses on diagnosing and curing individual with specific disease
Socio-medical - focuses on social and environmental factors that influence health and well-being .. impact of poverty, poor housing, diet and pollution
Concepts of health
Disabling environment -environment where facilities are not in place to ensure that people with impairments can take full part in social life ... this is a social model of disability
Concepts of ill health
Disability and impairment
Related ideas of disability and impairment very closely linked to medical and socio models of health
Words disability and impairment can be used in different ways
How can you define disability?
Important that you are clear on how to use these terms when considering the issues
Shakespeare (1998) - distinction between disability and impairment
Impairment focuses on individual and refers to day to day restrictions that may arise because of long term physical and mental condition
Loss of limb .. sensory impairment .. depression
Has similarities to biomedical model of health and illness
Concepts of ill health
The patient would need to cooperate with the health an social care professionals to limit restrictions cause by impairment
Similar social obligations to a person in the sick role discussed earlier
Disability is seen as a problem that arises when a society does not take into account the needs of people with impairments
Ex .. no ramps into building and doorways may be too narrow for people with wheelchairs
Person with hearing impairment may only be disabled when they have no access to hearing aid or not taught to lip read
Disability from this point of view is seen as restriction on the opportunity to take part in normal life of the community because of physical, social or attitudinal barriers
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