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Social Changes

By: Erin Burke, Alexa Akinyemi, Nafisa Sameja

Erin Burke

on 5 February 2013

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Transcript of Social Changes

Where do we see inequality today in modern America? The Origin of Slavery The slave trade developed soon after the Portuguese explored West Africa in the mid-15th century. At this time, the Europeans were setting up permanent colonies in North America. The Portuguese and Spanish already had slaves that provided labor for their agriculture. They found it useful to put blacks to work. The Civil War The Slave Trade To increase slave trade, and make it easier, the Portuguese built outposts along the African coast.
The first outpost built was called Fort Elmina in Western Africa and it was first controlled by the Portuguese
Africans were captured in raids and were brought to Elmina in exchange for European goods.
50 million Africans became slaves, but about 40% of Africans died on the trade route before they reached their destination.

Spain used the Fort because they needed slaves to work on their plantations in South America and the Caribbean. The rise of the sugar cane cultivation in the English colonies increased the need for labor. Planters first used indentured servants to work on their plantations.
Indentured servants: men and women who worked for a certain period time under a contract in exchange for freedom, land, and wealth, when their contract expired.

The Slave trade encouraged the idea of slavery because the South needed workers. Unlike the North, the South didn't have factories so slaves were brought to perform labor. Garrison & Douglass Amendments Develop Reconstruction Election of 1876 Jim Crow Laws Influence the South Plessy vs. Ferguson Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois Du Bois believed in direct political action towards overcoming inequality.
He thinks blacks should recieve a liberal arts education education so he founded the Niagra Movement.
He was a founder of NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) --> a civil rights organization that helped blacks get an education. WW1 and WW2 spark Civil Rights Protest Civil rights movement Brown vs. Board of Education Martin Luther King In 1955, Rosa Parks got arrested because she didn't want to give up her bus seat to a white woman. Martin Luther King then started the Montgomery Bus Movement. King ended up winning this boycott because the Supreme Court declared the idea of blacks and whites being segregated on busses as being unconstitutional. This was first win for Martin Luther King's integration movement. Little Rock, Arkansas Black Pride Movement Civil Rights Act, 1964 Voting Rights Act
1965 How Far We've Come... So, what should be done?? This case started out in 1954 when a girl's father named Oliver Brown protested a case against the Supreme Court. Brown's daughter had to walk 1 mile in order to get to her school even though only seven blocks away was a white school.

Brown vs Board of Education was when blacks protested segregation and promoted integration. The Supreme Court accepted this claim and declared segregation as unconstitutional. Although this law was passed people in the South still didn't take it seriousily. Which was why Martin Luther King brought the idea of integration to the next level.

Brown V Board of Education also contraditced Plessy vs Ferguson because while Plessy vs Ferguson promoted and allows segragtion, Brown vs. Board didn't. Sources Martin Luther King was a promoter of black rights and integration. He wanted to bring an end to racial segregation and provide everyone with an equal voice in society, despite racial differences.

After Brown v Board, King led many rallies and groups to promote integration. But to gain rights he believed in nonviolence, which was Civil Disobedience.

Martin Luther King promoted equality for blacks all over the country and played a key role in being able to get rights for blacks.

"Black men as well as white men would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pusuit of happiness." Martin Luther King believed in all men having equal rights. His civil right movments potrayed his passion for getting blacks their individual rights. He displays the idea of blacks getting the same rights that whites do.

"Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred"
"We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence"
King believed in civil disobedience which was acting without violence. He thought that the blacks shouldn't stoop down to the level of violence and they should remain dignified by protesting without using agressive behavior.

"Must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today"
He thought that all white people weren't bad and not all of them were against the blacks. That day this idea was supported by several white people coming out to hear his speech. After the Civil War, reconstruction began around 1865 to 1877, which aimed to provide blacks with equal rights in society. Blacks were empowered by this and thought a change was around the corner.

However, military force was needed to enforce the reconstruction laws because whites didn't feel the need to follow the new laws. The KKK, worked with Democrats in several states and used fraud and violence to help whites regain control over the new laws. Black Codes During reconstruction, Andrew Johnson passed "black codes". They were used to control the labor and behavior of former slaves and other African Americans in the south. The codes were designed to keep the whites on top. Some examples: slaves could not...

be away from owner's premises without permission
own firearms
be taught how to read or write
allowed to marry
defend themselves when they were attacked by whites
own property

Some slaves tried to run away and many started riots to show their rebellion.

Disobedience resulted with whippings, imprisonment, or sometimes even death. Because of their race, blacks were treated more unfairly, even for a very minor mistake. In other words, they were punished because they were black. Lasting from 1877 to the 1950's, Jim Crow Laws created legal segregation laws. Blacks were separated from the rest of white society through voting restrictions and strict laws in everyday life. KKK The Ku Klux Klan was a terrorist group. The KKK often used fear tactics on blacks so that they would be too afraid to speak up for their own rights.

Lynching, a public hanging, was used often to scare large crowds and it was not uncommon to see that on a daily basis during the time. When a black person was hung, it showed others what would happen to them if a certain law was disobeyed.

Members of this group were white supremecists and didn't like the idea of blacks being on the same level as them. In other words, they hated blacks. Both were civil rights leaders who tried to speak out and overcome inequality Voting restrictions were put into place because whites didn't want blacks to vote due to the common, yet very wrong, assumption that African Americans weren't smart enough and didn't deserve to.
Grandfather Clause--> If one's grandfather was qualified to vote before 1867, then they could vote. This excluded all African Americans because freed slaves were not qualified to vote before then. This is how the clause was possible, despite the 15th amendment.
Poll Tax--> One had to pay to enter a voting booth. Blacks were poor and could not pay due to their struggle to maintain a paying job.
Literacy Test--> One had to pass a test in order to vote, but because blacks were illiterate due to slavery, they were not educated and therefore couldn't vote. Homer Plessy was sent to jail for sitting in the white section of a bus. He wasn't noticeably black, but because his ancestors were, he was considered black. Therefore, he was forced to sit in the black section.

In a later court case, a civil rights organizer challenged the segregation laws and took it all the way to the Supreme Court. They argued about whether or not the laws went against the 13 and 14 amendments, but in the end, the Supreme Court declared the segregation laws (and Jim Crow laws) constitutional. When white men were called to war, many jobs in northern cities were open and available to African Americans. Many blacks moved from the south to the north to look for better job opportunities and improve their lives in what was known as the Great Migration. They felt this was a chance to show society their worthiness for equal treatment in the United States as well as their patriotism for the U.S. However, moving north did not result in equal treatment or an end to discrimination.

In addition, some black political leaders believed that if African Americans supported the war effort, they would deserve better treatment, and as a result they would be rewarded with fair and equal rights.

African Americans did fight in the army, however, in segregated units. They were treated unfairly there as well.

The economy boomed because blacks and women took over the newly available jobs. War supplies continued to be produced as a result. Women's participation in the war effort (working in factories, raising money for the war through fundraisers, etc) resulted in the long awaited right to vote. The 19th amendment gave women full suffrage. Rutherford B. Hayes vs Samuel Tilden
Tilden won popular vote
dispute over 20 votes--> there was suspicion of voter fraud
Congress then voted again, and Hayes won

The northern states mostly favored the republican party and the southern states were more democratic.

America's 19th president, Rutherford B. Hayes, helped get the nation back on track after the Civil War.

The Republican party stopped enforcing slavery laws.
This started Jim Crow era as more segreagtion developed, despite reconstruction. King establishes the SCLC The SCLC stood for Southern Christian Leadership Conference. This group promoted civil disobedience and brought many civil right movements to order. The Montgomery Bus Boycott triggered this conference and made sure that they got rewarded. Most of the people that were involved in the bus boycott joined the conference to lead other movements. Martin Luther King was the leader of this group and he played a key role in convincing other promoters to join the group.

Today the SCLC is still alive and can be found in Atlanta, Georgia where even today they fight against racism and inequality. In 1957 nine black kids raised there voices against segregation and decided to attend an all white school. This was an example of integration and the idea that although Brown vs Board of Education was passed it wasn't usually followed in the South. After Martin Luther King talked about integration and being together with the Whites. Blacks didn’t want to merge with the Whites and that’s is what brought upon black pride. Blacks wanted to stay black and didn’t want to integrate with the Whites as King believed. They had the same goal of getting rights and being equal but they didn't want to act or be white.

The civil rights movement had also been going on for some time and blacks felt they were never going to reach their goal and be accepted equally. Black Panthers and Malcolm X were both involved in this movement and put their heart in soul into remaining black.

The Black Panthers were founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. They focused more on protecting blacks when the civil right movement was occuring and provided food and medical care to black people in need. Malcolm X Malcolm X promoted integration but also had black pride. After traveling to Saudi Arabia he came back with new hope for America. He promoted the ideas of self-defense, not being reliable on anyone and black pride.

Malcolm X strongly believed that the Civil rights movement was going too slow and thought that anyone who had promised to help them didn't. He was tired of waiting for action and he wanted it then and there.
"He's talking the language of violence...Let's learn his language." Unlike Martin Luther King he believed it was time to take a stand and use violence because that was the only way he believed the blacks would get their rights sooner.
"...the return of these ex-slaves to our own land, where we can then live in peace and security among our people." Malcolm X was passionate about staying black, he didn't like the idea of trying to be white which was why he thought that the only way blacks could be free is to go back to their own land. Inequality Continues Today John F. Kennedy proposed this bill before he was assainated in 1963. He believed that by having this kind of inequality in the United States was shameful for their international image. After he was killedm, President Johnson continued the campaign even stronger and using Kennedy's death in his favor. He got the bill signed on July 6, 1964.

This bill was the long waited reward for all the blacks in the civil rights movement. It stated an end to segregation and discrimination in all public places. Blacks had finally gotten their freedom after years and years of campaigning and proteseting. The Triangular Trade Routes Both the Women and Blacks after WW2 wanted to fight for their rights in American Society. Women wanted to get rid of the common idea that they could only be housewives and take care of the kids. Blacks on the other hand wanted to get rid of segregation and promote integration. They were tired of the inequality they had to face and how they were seen as second class citizens. 1896 His philosophy urged blacks to accept discrimination and concentrate on hard work and prosperity to conquer discrimination.
Washington had a belief that racism would end when African Americans proved themselves worthy through hard work and showed useful labor skills, so he founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. .
. The Triangular Trade, was the term used to describe the slave trade.
Europeans would take goods like sugar, cotton, tobacco, from America back to Europe.
Europeans would take manufactured goods like rum, textiles, pots, pans, guns to Africa.
Europeans would trade African slaves to America. The Little Rock school refused to desegregate and this is a photo of a black girl trying to go to school in a white environment, and she's getting teased because of her race. Boycotting Buses No one ever thought the nation would see an African American president. Barack Obama got elected for president for a second term, despite his race. This shows, that even through past struggles, "America's possibilities are limitless."

"No union founded on the principles of liberty and equality could survive half slave, and half free." With inequality, there is no room for progression as a country. So since discrimination had lessened, we have all grown to be led by a black president. Despite women struggles in the past, according to this 2008 chart, on average, women have passed men in their education and success after college. The successes of the women's movement have made this possible today. The Civil War was a war to end slavery in the South and save the Union.
Between the Southern Confederacy and the Northern Union.
The North was based on manufacturing so not as many slaves were needed.
In the South they believed that ending slavery would destroy their economy and society.
Abraham Lincoln was hated by the South because he was a republican president, and most Southerners are democrats.
On January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
It was supposed to weaken the Confederacy and free slaves immediately, but never actually did.
Southerners feared that the slaves would rebel.
Many blacks left their owners and joined the Union Army.
But the black soldiers were treated unfairly: payed half as much as whites. They were tortured or killed if they were caught by the Confederacy.

This war's purpose was to fight for unity in the North and South. Many men weren't happy that the war turned into a fight for abolition. The 24th amendment started the voting act, it outlawed poll taxes which were taxes that people had to pay in order to vote. President Johnson passed this amendment in order to allow slaves to vote.

On August 6, 1965 Johnson signed the voting rights act which allowed blacks to vote freely without being punished and it got rid of the laws that said blacks couldn't perform the literary test.

These two acts civil rights act of 1964 and voting rights act of 1965 proved to be an enourmous stepping stone for the blacks that faced inequality. They both represented the end to the Civil Right movement and made it possible for the blacks to be held at the same level as the whites in society. "The Black Codes." The Black Codes. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
"Civil Rights Act of 1964." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 31 Jan.
2013.PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
"Spartacus Educational." Spartacus Educational. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013
"Reconstruction." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
"Women's Roles in the World Wars." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
"African Americans and World War I." African Americans and World War I. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
"- Fighting for Respect: African-American Soldiers in WWI." - Fighting for Respect: African-American Soldiers in WWI. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
"What Were the Effects of WWI in America?" What Were the Effects of WWI in America? N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013."Frederick Douglass: Great Abolitionist Leader." Frederick Douglass: Great Abolitionist Leader. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
"Frederick Douglass." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. Today we see inequality, not only with African Americans, but also between the sexes, religion, and differeing economic statuses. It is constitutional to be treated equal, but that is not always the reality.

For example, because muslims attacked us on 9/11, everyone assumes that all muslims are bad, even to this day. However, not all muslims are really terrorists. The media falsely represents various stereotypes and society is easily fooled to beleive them as reality.

Today, the average white household makes about 20 times more than an average black household. There is a large income gap, even today. Many former slave states have a higher poverty level today.

Because of our history, prejudice is still present in modern America. William Lloyd Garrison: Inequality is advertised everywhere today, which makes it easier for people to judge and make false accusations. The media broadcasts this information everywhere for everyone to see, which some people may think is good, but really it has the opposite effect. The more we broadcast shootings and hear about indivuals who have done wrongful things, the more likley people will judge. If the media broadcasted less about races and differences between individuals, people would be less sensitive towards different races and different types of people. Frederick Douglass: Douglass was born into slavery
Taught himself how to read and write.
On September 2, 1838 Douglass escaped slavery at age 21, to New York City.
Douglass subscibed to Garrison's newspaper and started to attend meetings of the abolition movement.
In 1841 Douglass spoke at a convention in Nantucket. He caught the audience's attention by speaking about his slave experience.
He soon became a lecturer at the Anti-Slavery Organization.
And became a leader of the Abolition Movement.
He launched his own anti-slavery newspaper called the North Star.
He believed that everyone should be equal including blacks, whites, women, Native Americans, and immigrants.
He was the first African American to attend a women's rights convention, The Seneca Falls Convention.
Douglass said that he wouldn't vote as a free black man if women didn't have the right to vote. Both Garrison and Douglass had the same idea of abolishing slavery. One thing they both disagreed on: Garrison thought that the US Constitution was pro-slavery but Douglass thought the US Constitution could be a weapon used to abolish slavery. On December 6, 1865 the 13th amendment was adopted soon after the Civil War
It outlawed slavery On July 9, 1868 the 14th amendment was adopted.
It gave freed slaves Constitutional rights. Reconstruction helped pass some Amendments: On February 3, 1870 the 15th amendment was adopted.
It gave slaves the right to vote. https://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&tab=wl How does inequality relate to our lives today? It's hard to believe that past inequality still affects us today. Everyday, someone makes a career choice but must keep in mind that each career is stereotyped. Nurses are usually women, big CEOs and good doctors usually turn out to be men. Most of these careers are usually male-dominated. So, it's hard to find a career choice without its sterotype getting in the way. Maybe a women wants to become a police officer, but because the career is so male-dominated, she may feel intimidated. Gender stereotyping is a problem women still face, and as a result, some may think women are incapable of doing a man's job. We may not think about these things on a daily basis, but it definitley affects us and our choices. Social Changes By: Erin Burke
Nafisa Sameja
Alexa Akinyemi A white abolitionist
Wrote for an anti-slavery newspaper called The Genius of Universal Emancipation.
He believed that blacks should be brought into American society and that one day blacks will be equal with whites.
He founded the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1832.
It was the first organization to support emancipation.
Garrison believed that the US Constitution was a pro-slavery document. Women were often unwanted in professional jobs. Only 10% of women held jobs that weren't tending to the house, kids, or being a wife.

In 1962, Betty Friedan wrote a book called "The Feminine Mystique". The book described womens' real feelings of frustration about being trapped in their houses. Everyone was shocked because people just assumed that women really enjoyed working in the household and serving their families.

The 1960s and 70s mainly focused on dismantling workplace inequality. Women wanted easier access to jobs and equal salaries to men.

In 1966, Betty Friedman helped begin lthe National Organization for Women (NOW). They fought with Congress for the development of equality laws. the group assisted women seeking legal advances as they battled workplace discrimination in court. However, some believed that NOW didn't help much.

Gloria Steinem and Germaine Greer were popular leaders during the feminist movement. They attracted the media's attention through their writings and they represented feminism to the public with determination. They reached out to ordinary women to help spread awareness.

People needed to accept women in the workforce because they have filled the gaps when men went to war.

Today, the gains of the feminist movement — women's access to education, their increased participation in politics and the workplace, their access to abortion and birth control, resources to aid domestic violence — are often taken for granted.
Women's Rights Movement
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