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Civil War

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kyle geralds

on 20 May 2016

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Transcript of Civil War

• Free states pass radical economic laws with southern representatives gone
o National banking system (government managed)
o National fiat money
 Before, hard money was backed by gold and silver and exchangeable
 Banks issued their own exchangeable notes (like dollars)
 After, only government money not exchangeable for gold or silver
• $ 450 million dollars printed to pay for war
• Inflation: Money supply UP to value of money goes DOWN
o Temporary progressive income tax – 3-5%
o Transcontinental railroad (across entire country)
o Tariff increase
o Homestead Act – Free land in west for poor farmers and immigrants

• Confederacy takes federal bases in south
o 25% of Union army surrendered to Texas State militia at Alamo in Texas

• Middle slaves states voted against secession: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri, and Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee
• Compromise can’t be reached
o Crittenden compromise asked CSA to come back and accept Missouri Compromise line
 Republicans blocked
o Republicans respond: No new slave states – don’t mess with current slaves states
 Democrats blocked

o Secession is unconstitutional
o Will still collect tariffs at ports
o Will not give up another base (5 left)

o Pay for all federal land, bases & ports
o Lincoln rejects it – refusing to acknowledge the CSA delegates
o To Lincoln: CSA not a country – simply rebels in his own country

• Battle at Fort Sumter
o Lincoln orders Union commander not to surrender
o Confederate army attacks Fort Sumter in Charleston’s South Carolina Harbor
o Fort surrendered in 2 days

• November 1860 – Lincoln is elected
o Republicans – anti-slavery / purely section (northern) party
 Lincoln not even on the ballot in southern states –still wins election

o 7 States secede: All cotton states - South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas and write Declaration of Causes (Grievances to support ending social contract)
 Reason 1 – protect & expand slavery
 Reason 2 – feared abolition movement
• Possible amendment to end slavery in USA
• Starting a slave revolt
• federal gov’t not enforcing fugitive slave laws
 Reason 3 – states’ rights
• To nullify
• To secede
• To own slaves
• Deny free blacks citizenship
• To have runaway slaves treated as fugitive and returned
 Reason 4 – federal gov’t and federal taxes (tariffs) promoted northern industry against southern agriculture
 Reason 5 – did not like Lincoln and the Republicans
• Republicans: Purely sectional – opposed to the expansion of slavery & fugitive slave laws
• Republicans: Wanted west open to free working class Americans not the southern upper class plantation system

o Shutdown Maryland railroads
o Destroy bridges to DC to slow Union army
o Riot in Baltimore

• Lincoln calls for 75,000 state militia soldiers for 90 days
o Arkansas, Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina refused and joined the CSA
o Richmond, Virginia becomes capital (100 miles from D.C.)
o Slave Border States Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and later West Virginia never vote for secession and stay in the Union
o Detains (imprisons without trial) 1/3 of Maryland legislature, newspaper writers and secessionists
o Refusing someone a trial is violating their right habeas corpus (due process)
o Takes over Maryland railroad companies using martial law (complete power is taken by government during times of war- constitutional law and rights do not apply)
Missouri and West Virginia become local battlefields
o Missouri State legislature votes to stay in Union
o Secessionist governor calls forth state militia but is crushed by Union army
o Provides 110,000 soldiers to the Union and 30,000 to the CSA

o 1,200 fights (3rd of war) between Bushwhackers(CSA) and Jayhawks (Union)
o West Virginia people secede from Virginia and enter union. West Virginia provides 20 thousand soldiers to each side.
o Kentucky – 100 thousand Union soldiers 20-40 thousand CSA
Building the Union Army
o North passes conscription (drafting/draft) of soldiers (forcing citizens into the army)
o Rich could buy their way out for $300($6,000 today)

New York Draft Riots
 Working class rebels – 100 die / 2,000 injured
 Largest rebellion in American history (excluding Civil War)
 Became race riot – blacks targeted and later fled Manhattan NYC
 Union army and state militias put down the riots and complete draft

o 144K Irish immigrants
o 177K German Immigrants
o 180K African Americans
o Union army used 2.2million soldiers / CSA 1 million

Military Makeup
• New Elite Military
o Small frontier army to military powerhouses
o Both better than French, Russian and German militaries

Casualties (deaths and injuries)
o Union 365k dead + 282k wounded:
 110k died from battle / 230k disease / 30k CSA prisons
o CSA 290k dead + 137k wounded
 94k died from battle / 30k Union prisons
o 50k civilians died
o Total 700k-900k military deaths
o POWs - Prisoners of War faced bad conditions
o 56k of 410k prisoners die (1/8)
o General Winfield Scot
o 1) Blockade South
o 2) Control Mississippi River
o 3) Capture Richmond

1st Battle of Bull Run
 1st battle of Civil War
 Each side sent 18k soldiers into battle
 CSA lost almost 2k driving the Union back to Maryland losing 2.7k
 Message – this will not be easy for the Union / war will be long and bloody

o Scott resigns / General McClellan takes command
 Drills and trains great army – attacks Virginia
 Driven away from Richmond by CSA General Lee and “Stonewall” Jackson in Seven Days’ Battle

2nd Battle of Bull Run
 Outnumbered (50k) Lee crushes Union (77k). Union loses 14k and CSA only 7k
Lee invades Maryland
North drives him back to VI 23k American casualties
Bloodiest/Most deadly battle in history of America
Lincoln Fires McClellan
 Lincoln believed McClellan should have chased Lee into Virginia to finish him
 McClellan was cautious (careful) and did not
 Gen Halleck takes over – good military manager but not strategic general
• Will also be fired from position
o Blockade (using ships to stop imports, exports and enemy use of the sea
o 670 ships blocked all 10 southern ports – only 10% of South’s cotton sold

o Ironclads – N&S plated ships with iron
Ironclads best for ramming other ships

o CSS Virginia (CSA) made from USS Merrimack dropped two Union ships and went for third
o USS Monitor defended - fought for 3 hours with no winner
o Navies quit building wooden ships

o New Orleans CSA 8 man crew sinks US ship
o Crew runs out of oxygen and dies
o Recovered in 2004
CSS HUNLEY (Submarine)
Grant take the Rivers
o Ulysses S Grant and ironclad gunboats (steamboats) rule rivers
 CSA fights riverboats and blockade with remote torpedoes (floating mines)
 USS Cairo becomes first ship sunk by one
 Control Ohio, Tennessee, Cumberland and northern Mississippi Rivers
 Take Memphis Tennessee
o Union Admiral Farragut leads Naval attacks on Gulf Coast
 Would be tied to mast so he could see the battle
 “Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!
 Overwhelmed CSA Ironclad CSS Tennessee
o He captured New Orleans – CSA largest port & city
o Union now controlled bottom of Mississippi
Emancipation Proclamation
o Lincoln emancipates (frees) slaves in all states that seceded (in rebellion)
 Proclaims (government or public announcement) 3 million slaves freed 1/1863
o Does not have constitutional authority to free in non-rebelling states
 Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware keep slaves until 13th Amendment (1865)
 Purpose – hurt South’s economy and labor source
o Added purpose to war
 War shifts from keeping the Union together to freeing slaves

Advantages and Disadvantages
 Fight mostly in homeland
• Know the land for advantages in battle
• Supported with food from population
• Fight with more passion defending homes
 Generals
• Robert E Lee and other CSA Generals superior to Union
 War of Attrition (wearing another side/person down over time)
• Many northerners did not support Civil War
• Anti-War democrats could possible vote out Lincoln (they won’t)

 Anaconda Plan (see previous notes)
• Starve out the south – they can’t trade and keep/transport food
 Overwhelm with resources
• More money
• More people to recruit and draft
• More industry and supplies
• More railroads for transportation
• More telegraph for fast communication
• More of a navy
• Unblocked ports so trade can continue

New Technology
 Ironclads, torpedoes and submarines
 Rifling (spiral grooved gun barrels) with minie ball
• Very accurate (good at hitting target) and now long distance
• Minie ball causes more damage
• Reload faster
• Results – very high casualties
 Trench Warfare
• New cannons and rifles too deadly
• Dig trenches in ground to stay safe
• High casualties at siege of Vicksburg, Richmond and Petersburg Virginia

• Infections like gangrene (disease in a wound) killed soldiers who didn’t die from the shot
• 60,000 amputations (removing a limb like arm or leg) stopped gangrene from spreading
• Chemical bromine disinfects and increases survival
• Clara Barton creates Red Cross (organization that helps people hurt in emergencies)
• 3,000 nurses help soldiers

Vicksburg in the West
 Vicksburg is the last base stopping Union control of Mississippi
 Grant begins a siege with trench warfare and iron clads
 3 months siege ends – CSA surrenders 30,000 soldiers
 Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana cut off from CSA

Gettysburg in the East
 Lee attacks North hoping for peace settlement
 Each side loses around 25,000 soldiers in 3 days
• Bloodiest battle in US history
 Union General Meade successful

• Day 2 – Col. Joshua Chamberlain of Maine
o Talked deserters into rejoining war in the name of fighting slavery
o Defended Little Round Top from CSA flank
o Famous downhill bayonet charge

• Day 3 – Pickett’s Charge
o CSA cannoned Union lines hard (most in war)
 Union did not fire back (CSA thought they were out)
o 12,500 CSA charged cemetery ridge – led by General George Pickett
 Longstreet opposed Lee’s order to charge
 Union turns on cannons - Half of CSA in charge die

Gettysburg Address
• Created a national cemetery for the soldiers who died
• Lincoln read a short and simple (10 sentences) speech about preserving a country built on freedom and that then men who died at Gettysburg did not die in vain (for nothing)
• Considered by many to be one of the best speeches ever

1864 Election
o Lincoln had to turn for reelection
o Democrats nominate fired General George McClellan
o Lincoln wins 55% of the vote & most of electoral vote

Sherman’s March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman
o March from Tennessee to Atlanta, Georgia to Savannah Georgia.
 Atlanta – largest city after Richmond
 Savannah – major port
 War against South’s economy & people
 Did not kill civilians but destroyed everything else
 Destroyed: rail road tracks, bridges, farms, homes, fields, cows, pigs, horses, sheep telegraph wires, ports & warehouses.
 Break the southern economy, will of the people and ability to support army
Siege of Petersburg
o Important to supply line of Richmond and Lee’s Army
o 9 months ( 6/9/1864-3/25/1865)– trench warfare
o Heavy casualties: 42k Union 28k CSA
 Union used many African American soldiers (16k)
o Richmond cut off – Lee leaves Richmond and it falls to the Union
 African American march into the CSA capital
Lee Surrenders
o Grant surrounds Lee and accepts his surrender
o Confederate army pardoned of treason
o Soldiers surrender guns, get food and march home
o Officers got to keep swords and horses
o Lee tells men not to fight a guerilla war (resistance)
o Killed by actor John Wilkes Booth
o While at Ford Theater (D.C.)
o Tennessee Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President

o Ahead was the difficult task of bringing the seceding states back into the union
o And how to free and then incorporate slaves into American society
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