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Child Development

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Archway In Home

on 16 July 2014

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Transcript of Child Development

Birth - 3 months
NEWBORN
3 months - 12 months
INFANTS
1 year - 3 years
TODDLERS
4 years - 6 years
PRESCHOOLERS
6 years - 13 years
SCHOOL AGED
CHILDREN

13 years - 19 years
ADOLESCENT
Physical development
Newborns:
Raise head slightly when lying on stomach
Hold head up for a few seconds, when supported
Hold hand in a fist
Lift head and chest, while lying on stomach
Use sucking, grasping, and rooting (holding tongue to the roof of the mouth)
Touch, pull, and tug own hands with fascination
Repeat body movements, and enjoy doing so

Social / emotional development
Newborns spend a lot of time getting to know their own bodies. They:
Suck their own fingers
Observe their own hands
Look at the place on the body that is being touched
Begin to realize he/she is a separate person from others and learn how body parts, like arms and legs, are attached

Newborns are interested in other people and learn to recognize primary caregivers.
Most infants:
Can be comforted by a familiar adult
Respond positively to touch
Interact best when in an alert state or in an inactive and attentive state
Benefit from short, frequent interactions more than long, infrequent ones
Smile and show pleasure in response to social stimulation.

Communication skills
From the very start, newborns pay close attention to language. In the first year:
they can distinguish all of the speech sounds that occur in natural language
they begin to specialize in the sounds of their home language.

Most infants will:
Respond to speech by looking at the speaker
Respond differently to the voice of a parent than to other voices
React to changes in a speaker's tone, pitch, volume, and intonation
Respond differently to their home language and another language
Communicate with bodily movements, by crying, babbling, and laughing
Attempt to imitate sounds.

Physical development
Social / emotional development
Communication skills
Babies are quickly becoming stronger and more agile.
Most begin to:
Roll over
Push body forward and pull body up by grabbing the edge of a crib
Reach, grasp, and put objects in mouth
Make discoveries with objects (for example, a rattle makes noise when it is moved)


Babies are more likely to initiate social interaction. They begin to:
Play peek-a-boo
Pay attention to own name
Smile spontaneously
Laugh aloud

Babies show a wider emotional range and stronger preferences for familiar people. Most can:
Express several clearly differentiated emotions
Distinguish friends from strangers
Respond actively to language and gestures
Show displeasure at the loss of a toy

As they near age one, imitation and self-regulation gain importance. Most babies can:
Feed themselves finger foods
Hold a cup with two hands and drink with assistance
Hold out arms and legs while being dressed
Mimic simple actions
Show anxiety when separated from primary caregiver

Most children of this age:
Exchange sounds, facial expressions, or gestures with a parent or caregiver
Listen to conversations
Repeat some vowel and consonant sounds

Children's vocalizations increase. Most babies of this age:
Begin repetitive babbling (deaf children also start to babble with their hands)
Associate gestures with simple words and two-word phrases, like "hi" and "bye-bye"
Use vocal and non-vocal communication to express interest and influence others

Children are getting ready to talk. Around the first birthday, language production doubles. Many babies of this age:
Understand the names of familiar people and objects
Show their understanding with responsive body language and facial expressions
Say a few words
Respond to a firm "no" by stopping what they are doing.

Communication skills
Social / emotional development
Physical development
Walking and self-initiated movement become easier. Most toddlers can:
Walk alone
Walk backwards
Pick up toys from a standing position
Walk up and down stairs with aid


Toddlers become more aware of themselves and their ability to make things happen. They express a wider range of emotions and are more likely to initiate interaction with other people. At this stage, most toddlers:
Recognize themselves in pictures or the mirror and smile or make faces at themselves
Play by themselves and initiate their own play
Express negative feelings
Show pride and pleasure at new accomplishments


Physical development
Social / emotional development
Communication skills
Between 4 and 6 years of age, a child is honing fine and gross motor skills like
balance
coordination
dexterity
agility

Appropriately label emotions such as:
mad
sad
happy
okay

Preschoolers enjoy
reading
intraverbals
tacting
manding
Have a vocabulary of 900 or more words
Put words together to form 3-4 word sentences
WH questions
Like to talk and have conversations with people
Often make mistakes with negatives and use “double negatives” ie: “I don’t not want to go”
Are developing number concepts – can give you 1, more, or all of something


Communication skills
Social / emotional development
Physical development
School-age children usually have smooth and strong motor skills. However, their coordination (especially eye-hand), endurance, balance, and physical abilities vary.




School-age children are willing to:
play cooperatively, take turns, and share
Understand their own feelings
Understand the consequences of their actions
Enjoy playing alone, but prefer to play with friends
Show empathy and offer to help when they see another in distress
Befriend children of the opposite gender
Form a sense of humor and enjoy telling jokes
Can distinguish between fantasy and reality



School-age kids begin to view the world in complex ways. At this stage,
children often move from being concrete thinkers to being more reflective ones.
They think more logically about world events, while still viewing them subjectively.
They start to look at causes and begin asking more challenging questions.

Between the ages of 6 and 11, kids become purposeful.
They think in advance about what they want and often have a plan for how to get it.


Physical development
Social / emotional development
Communication skills
Participation in physical activity may change in adolescence and youth may specialize in one particular sport.

Puberty causes ongoing physical changes. These changes are different between males and females and often impact a young person’s developing body image. Physical development continues to impact sleep cycles throughout adolescence.
Adolescents are actively exploring their self-identity.
Self-efficacy and the ability for self-reflection may improve,
but self-esteem may decline.
Relationships with friends are increasingly important
romantic relationships may begin.
Relationships with family members continue to change.
Adolescents may experience ongoing mood fluctuations and be emotionally reactive as they develop the skills to manage new and intense emotions.
Development of empathy and the ability to self-motivate is ongoing.

Teens essentially communicate as adults, with increasing maturity throughout high school.



CHILD DEVELOPMENT
For our purpose we are going to focus on the stages of infancy - teens.
The Psychological Perspective on Child Development
Erikson's stages of psychological
development
Piaget's cognitive stages of child development
Freud's theory
of psychosexual

Balance improves and eye-hand coordination becomes more precise. Most toddlers can:
Put rings on a peg
Turn two or three pages at a time
Scribble
Turn knobs


Toddlers become more comfortable with motion, increasing speed, and coordination.
Most begin to:
Run forward
Jump in place with both feet together
Stand on one foot, with aid
Walk on tiptoe
Toddlers are able to manipulate small objects with increased control. Most can:
String large beads
Hold crayon with thumb and fingers instead of fist
Paint with wrist action, making dots and lines
Roll, pound, squeeze, and pull clay


Movement and balance improve. Most toddlers can:
Balance on one foot
Push, pull, and steer toys
Ride a tricycle
Throw and catch a ball


Toddlers' precision of motion improves significantly. Most are able to:
Build a tall tower of blocks
Drive pegs into holes
Draw crosses and circles
Manipulate clay by making balls, snakes, etc.
Toddlers begin to experience themselves as more powerful, creative "doers."
They explore everything, show a stronger sense of self and expand their range of self-help skills.
Self-regulation is a big challenge.



Toddlers enjoy parallel play, engaging in solitary activities near other children. They are likely to:
Watch other toddlers and briefly join in play
Defend their possessions
Begin to play house
Participate in simple group activities, such as singing clapping or dancing


As their dexterity and self-help skills improve, 3-year-olds become more independent. Most can:
Follow a series of simple directions
Complete simple tasks with food without assistance, such as spreading soft butter with a dull knife and pouring from a small pitcher
Wash hands unassisted and blow nose when reminded


Gross Motor Skills between 4 and 6 years of age:
hop on one foot
change directions when he/she runs.
jump rope
stand on one foot
may be able to ride a bike without training wheels.
can catch and throw a ball with accuracy and direction


Fine Motor Skills between 4 ans 6 years of age:
build a block tower that's 10 blocks high
put together a puzzle of about 12 pieces
hold a pencil in an adult curved-hand style, as opposed to a clenched fist.
draws pictures with recognizable objects like trees, people and animals.
has developed enough muscle control and precision to cut accurately around a paper figure
can dress and undress self
Children’s emotional states are very:
situation-specific
can change as rapidly as they switch from one activity to another.


There is an increasing
internalization
regulation over their emotions.
use language to express how they and others feel.

onset of puberty
There can also be a big difference in the age at which children begin to develop secondary sexual characteristics.


Most 2-year-olds can:
Join familiar words into phrases
Begin to use modifiers (adverbs and adjectives)
Point to common objects when they are named
Name objects based on their description
Respond to "what?" and "where?" questions
Enjoy listening to stories and asking for favorite stories
Recount events that happened that day


Language usage becomes more complex. Most 3-year-olds can:
Make themselves understood to strangers, despite some sound errors
Use and understand sentences
Use more complex grammar, such as plurals and past tense
Understand sentences involving time concepts (for example, "Grandma is coming tomorrow") and narrate past experiences
Understand size comparisons such as big and bigger
Understand relationships expressed by "if… then" or "because" sentences
Follow a series of two to four related directions
Sing a song and repeat at least one nursery rhyme
Around puberty feelings about themselves emerge.
As a result, children this age are highly self-conscious, while at the same feeling powerful and invincible.
Becomes preoccupied with others’ perception of themselves.
School-age kids begin to tailor their communication styles to their surroundings.
Younger kids usually
communicate with one style no matter where they are or who they are with.
As school-age kids spend more time away from home, they often develop new patterns of speaking based on what their friends are saying or what they hear on television.
School-age kids may become private about their thoughts.
Teens should be able to:
process texts and abstract meaning
relate word meanings and contexts
understand punctuation
form complex syntactic structures
However, communication is more than the use and understanding of words; it also includes how teens think of themselves, their peers, and authority figures.


As teens seek independence from family and establish their own identity, they begin thinking abstractly and become concerned with moral issues. All of this shapes the way they think and communicate.
Autism spectrum disorders appear in infancy and early childhood, causing delays in many basic areas of development:
Social
Sensory
Behavioral

The signs and symptoms of autism vary widely, as do its effects. Some children with autism have only mild impairments, while others have more obstacles to overcome. However, every child on the autism spectrum may have challenges in the following three areas:
Communicating verbally and non-verbally
Relating to others and the world around them
Thinking and behaving flexibly

Autism in Babies & Toddlers
Early Signs in Babies & Toddlers
May not:
make eye contact (e.g. look at you when being fed).
smile when smiled at.
respond to his or her name or to the sound of a familiar voice.
follow objects visually.
point or wave goodbye or use other gestures to communicate.
follow the gesture when you point things out.
make noises to get your attention.
initiate or respond to cuddling.
imitate your movements and facial expressions.
reach out to be picked up.
play with other people or share interest and enjoyment.
ask for help or make other basic requests.

Autism in older children
As children get older, the red flags for autism become more diverse. Typically revolve around:
impaired social skills
speech and language difficulties
non-verbal communication difficulties
inflexible behavior
Social difficulties
Appears disinterested or unaware of other people or what’s going on around them.
Doesn’t know how to connect with others, play, or make friends.
Prefers not to be touched, held, or cuddled.
Doesn’t play "pretend" games, engage in group games, imitate others, or use toys in creative ways.
Has trouble understanding or talking about feelings.
Doesn’t seem to hear when others talk to him or her.
Doesn't share interests or achievements with others (drawings, toys).

Speech & Language difficulties
Speaks in an abnormal tone of voice, or with an odd rhythm or pitch (e.g. ends every sentence as if asking a question).
Repeats the same words or phrases over and over.
Responds to a question by repeating it, rather than answering it.
Refers to themselves in the third person.
Uses language incorrectly (grammatical errors, wrong words).
Has difficulty communicating needs or desires.
Doesn’t understand simple directions, statements, or questions.
Takes what is said too literally (misses undertones of humor, irony, and sarcasm).

Non Verbal Communication Difficulties
Avoids eye contact.
Uses facial expressions that don't match what he or she is saying.
Doesn’t pick up on other people’s facial expressions, tone of voice, and gestures.
Makes very few gestures (such as pointing). May come across as cold or “robot-like.”
Reacts unusually to sights, smells, textures, and sounds. May be especially sensitive to loud noises.
Abnormal posture, clumsiness, or eccentric ways of moving (e.g. walking exclusively on tiptoe).

Inflexibility in Autism
Follows a rigid routine (e.g. insists on taking a specific route to school).
Has difficulty adapting to any changes in schedule or environment (e.g. throws a tantrum if the furniture is rearranged or bedtime is at a different time than usual).
Unusual attachments to toys or strange objects such as keys, light switches, or rubber bands.
Obsessively lines things up or arranges them in a certain order.
Preoccupation with a narrow topic of interest, often involving numbers or symbols (e.g. memorizing and reciting facts about maps, train schedules, or sports statistics). Spends long periods of time arranging toys in specific ways, watching moving objects such as a ceiling fan, or focusing on one specific part of an object such as the wheels of a toy car.
Repeats the same actions or movements over and over again, such as flapping hands, rocking, or twirling (known as self-stimulatory behavior, or “stimming”). Some researchers and clinicians believe that these behaviors may soothe children with autism more than stimulate them.
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