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Physics Of Soccer

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Anna parenteau

on 3 January 2014

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Transcript of Physics Of Soccer

Physics Of Soccer

Interesting Facts
There are a total of 32 panels on a traditional soccer ball
A professional soccer player runs about 3.9 miles every game
Soccer was illegal in Mississippi until 1991
The national sport of Canada is soccer
Over a million fans watch the world cup on television
The world cup takes place every four years

Basic Rules
Only the goalie can use hands
There is an off sides rule
Off sides: When players from the opposing team cross the defensive line and touch the ball before the ball crosses
The object of the game is to try to get the ball in the opposite teams net and score the most goals by the end

Famous Players
Messi: from Argentina, but plays for Barcelona, has been named World Player of the Year 4 times
Ronaldo: His famous step-over move is imitated by players all over the world. Has made a huge impact since joining Real Madrid from Manchester United in 2009
Mia Hamm
:
retired American player, played for the United States women's national team and held record for most international goals until 2013, when Abby Wambach took the record at 159 goals.
The Physics Of Soccer
-Projectile Motion-
The Physics Of Soccer
-Momentum-
When you kick a ball, you transfer momentum to the ball.
Momentum, in soccer, is the speed of the ball times it's mass.
Anna Parenteau & Allie Baratto
Origin
There are signs of feet-based ball games that go back as far as 2500BC!
But, official rules were developed in 1863 in England
Also called "futbol" "football"
The first official soccer match took place in Battersea Park, London, 1893
Since then, soccer clubs have grown incredibly and it has become the most popular sport in the world.
More Basic Rules
Penalties include: Hand ball, offside, high kick, unsportsmanlike conduct, and checking
11 players play for each team including the goalie
Ball can be put back into play by a corner kick, goal kick or throw in.
Equipment
: Soccer cleats, soccer socks, shin guards, soccer ball, gloves for goalies only, jersey of some sort.
In order for a shot to happen(projectile motion), 4 things must take place. They are:

Velocity- the speed of the kick
Friction- the drag on the ball in the opposite direction
Gravity
And Magnus Force- when the ball curves or spins away form the initial kicking position.
Projectile Motion
Projectile motion: when an object is projected into the air at an angle with a horizontal surface.
Soccer example of projectile motion: When the ball is kicked into the air
When the ball is kicked, it reaches a maximum height and returns back to the ground.
When the ball is at the top of it's projectile path, the velocity is equal to 0.
Momentum: the product of mass and velocity of a given object.
Momentum
Another example of momentum in soccer:

When players pass and receive the ball, they use their feet to slow the momentum of the ball.
This gives the player more control over the ball.
The Physics Of Soccer
-Newton's Laws-
How soccer relates to Newton's
first law
:
Once the ball is kicked, it will keep moving without stopping because of
inertia
, the tendency an object has to do what it is already doing.
The ball will also stay at rest, unless acted on by another force, because of this law.
So, the ball will stay sitting until you kick it.
Newton's Laws
How soccer relates to Newton's
second law
:
Because
F=ma
, if you want the ball to move faster, you must kick it with more force.
If you want the ball to only travel a small distance, then apply less force to your kick.
This is because force and acceleration relate directly. The acceleration of the ball when you kick it will be proportional with how hard you kick it.
Newton's Laws
How soccer relates to Newton's
third law
:
This law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
The same amount of force you use to kick the ball will be returned to you just as hard.
Another example: when you head the ball, the ball is exerting the same force on your head as your head puts on the ball.

The Physics Of Soccer
-Friction-
In Soccer, when a ball is kicked along a surface, there is always an opposite force of friction.
Friction is the force resisting the motion of an object.
Friction can also occur when the ball is in flight, too, because of air resistance!
Air resistance is also the reason the ball slows down.
When a player receives a second caution(yellow) card in the same game, he or she will be disqualified with red card, and the team will then play the rest of the game without replacing the player.
A coach or trainer may not enter the field without the referee's approval.
If a player or coach on the bench is acting with misconduct, they may also receive a yellow card from the referee.
How Rules Have Changed
Interview
We interviewed Allie's Aunt, Angie. She played high school soccer for Hudson, and got a scholarship to UW-Green Bay. She also coached our girls club team for a while.
Interview
What experience do you have?
- I played all through high school, got a scholarship to play college soccer at UW Green Bay, played all through college and still play on rec teams.

What is your favorite soccer memory?
- When I played for Green Bay in college, we beat our rival, Milwaukee, our senior year. Not only one of my favorite soccer memories, but one of my all-time favorite memories. A lot of hard work seemed to pay off that win.
Interview
Words of advice?
- If you enjoy playing soccer, and want to play in college, work hard and put your heart into it when no one else is looking.

What awards have you earned playing soccer?
- Conference MVP in high school and first team all-conference in college.

Favorite field position?
- Stopper, because I was able to tackle and know there was somebody behind me just in case I happened to miss.
Interview
Who is your favorite professional soccer player?
- Megan Rapinoe because she's super consistent and always seems to deliver. She doesn't seem to need any of the glory.

Where is the best place to strike the ball with your cleat?
- Laces.

Is it easier to play on grass or turf?
- It is much easier to play on grass, because it takes the ball more time to get to your foot and gives you more time to think about your next play. Turf requires a lot more control.
Interview
Favorite place in the net to shoot at?
- A hard crisp shot to the top corners is more effective for me.

What role has soccer played in your life?
- Soccer has taught me how to work with a team and have dedication towards a sport.
Our Passion For Soccer
We both started playing soccer at a very young age, around 3 years old, through the Hudson soccer association. We both moved to travelling soccer at the end of elementary school, playing almost year round, in the winter too, in the Stillwater dome. Soccer has been a huge part of our lives because our friendship has grown with our experience in soccer, we have learned teamwork, and skill in a sport. Soccer has let us meet friends, and learn to work super hard towards what we want.
Experiment
Our problem is: How does the playing surface affect the acceleration of the ball?
Our hypothesis is: We believe that cement has the least fiction and will make the ball travel the fastest.
Plan The Experiment
Independent Variable - Surface (Wood, Carpet, Cement)

Dependent Variable - Acceleration (change in the balls velocity over time)

What to keep constant -
We need to control the force we kick the ball with, and the distance will stay constant.
Plan The Experiment
Materials that we need:
Soccer ball, a stopwatch the surfaces chosen, tape, and a meter stick to measure our constant distance of 3 meters.

**Since we are doing our experiment in the winter, we are using indoor surfaces to test the balls speed. Ideally, we would be able to test grass and turf, in addition to our surfaces chosen. However, the surfaces we picked range in smoothness and friction, so we can still measure a difference in acceleration.
Step By Step Procedure
Our procedure:
Choose which surface to test. The surfaces are wood, shaggy carpet, and cement.
Measure a distance of 3 meters on the surface. We did this by using a meter stick to measure out meter-by-meter and by putting a piece of tape at the start and the end.
Then, you kick the ball from the starting point, and set the stopwatch. You then stop the stopwatch as the ball crosses the 3 meter mark on the ground.
We repeated this 3 times and measured the time 3 times.
We then recorded the time in a data table we made, and found the average of the three time trials for each surface.
Repeat for the next surface.
Testing the Hypothesis
We then preformed our procedure, starting with wood as our first surface.
The wood made the ball travel relatively fast for the small force used to kick it.
Then, we chose to kick on the carpet, which is our surface most comparable to grass because it has some drag on the ball.
Testing The Hypothesis
We then ran our experiment on a cement surface. The smooth and hard exterior of the cement floor resulted in very little friction, allowing the ball to go very fast.

In all of our trials, we only tested one variable, the different types of flooring/surface the ball rolls on.
Observations
Our data:
Calculations
As you can see from our highlighted accelerations, they vary greatly.
Analyze Data
We decided to make a bar chart that displays the difference in accelerations.
The smoothness and less friction a surface has dictates the acceleration, because friction slows the ball down. That is why the smoothest surface, cement, caused the ball to go fastest.
Conclusion
Our hypothesis was correct, the cement surface resulted in the fastest acceleration of the ball.
This can be demonstrated in our bar chart showing the comparable accelerations in the last slide.
Our conclusion is that the smoothness of the surface (less friction) makes the ball go faster. The smoother the surface, such as cement, or tile, the faster the ball travels when kicked. The more drag and pull a surface has, such as long grass, makes the ball travel slower even when kicked with the same force.
Conclusion
Soccer players can use and understand this conclusion because it is known that grass is easier to play on than a surface with less drag, like turf or concrete, because the friction gives you time to control and react to the ball coming at you.
The only thing that could have affected the outcome of our experiment is that it was difficult to kick the ball with the exact same amount of force each time.
And, if we had more surfaces to test, but we were limited.
If we repeated this experiment exactly, we would be likely to get similar results. And the surface with the least friction would be fastest.The surfaces would not change over time.
Conclusion
In summary, our experiment tested if the surface a soccer ball is kicked on has any affect over the acceleration. It certainly does, because after measuring the differences in time, velocity, and finally acceleration, the different surfaces over the same distance (3m) resulted differently.
Our findings prove our hypothesis, cement has the least friction on the ball and resulted in the fastest acceleration.
Bibliography
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