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communication team

senior project 1
by

omar khalil

on 28 December 2012

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Transcript of communication team

Communicating with the quadcopter wireless
communications GPR GPS A wide variety of different wireless data technologies exist There are 3 main standards Personal Area Network (PAN) Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN) Cellular networks (WAN) systems are intended for short range communication between devices typically controlled by a single person
as ANT UWB, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and Wireless USB For wider area communications
known by their commercial product name Wi-Fi
for city-wide/national/global coverage areas
from one access point to another allowing coverage for very wide areas Wireless Communications is going to be used in this project to control and get status messages from the quad-copter. There are numerous solutions that will be researched in order to meet the design specifications of the desired wireless communications. Those design specifications are: Range: 100 m Data Rate: Equal Or greater than 56 Kbps •Latency: To be 100 ms or less •Cost: To be Less than $100 Different wireless communication protocols are available that can meet these specifications, but budget and time will limit the choices to one system .Wireless protocols to choose from include: Wi-Fi Dash7 Bluetooth 6lowpan Z-Wave Zigbee Wi-Fi Wi-Fi , is a wireless networking technology used across the globe it uses the 802.11 standard
operates on the 2.4 GHz ISM (Industrial, Medical, and Scientific) band
maximum data rate of 11 M b/s
maximum range is 38 meter indoors, and 140 meters outdoors
latency below100 msec Reason of rejection Meets and exceeds our specification,so this power lost could have been used for more important parts such as the GPR,motors or sensors Dash7 DASH7 is an open source wireless sensor networking standard for wireless sensor networking operates in the 433 MHz unlicensed ISM band
multi-year battery life
range of up to 2 km
small open source protocol stack
AES 128-bit shared key encryption
data transfer of up to 200 Kbit/s Reason of rejection The transceiver IC that can provide a Dash7 wireless communication solution is the TI CC430F6137,this IC is not available in stock at the moment,ordering it from its vendor would require months for it to be ready to use Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances Bluetooth ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz
high levels of security
Although Bluetooth is known for short range communications, a range of 10 meters
it can achieve a range of 100 meters when using a class 1 Bluetooth radio Reason of rejection the versions that meet our design specifications are very complex to install compared to other standards that will be discussed later 6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks 6lowPAN The targets are the applications that need wireless internet connectivity at lower data rates for devices with very limited processing capabilities data rates of 250 kb/s
latency of 100ms
average of 100 m range Reason of rejection very few choices as to 6LoWPAN software protocol stack source code Z-Wave is a wireless communications protocol designed for home automation Z-wave Unlike ZigBee and 6loWPAN, Z-Wave was designed with extremely low data rate in mind works on the 900 MHz ISM band
data rates of 9.6 Kbps and up to 40Kbps
In the outdoor, open air conditions, Z-Wave can achieve a range of approximately of 30 m Reason of rejection The data rate is below the 56 Kbps minimum, and the range is way below the required 100 m ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks ZigBee low cost
ultra-low power consumption
use of unlicensed radio bands
cheap and easy installation
flexible and extendable networks
integrated intelligence for network set-up and message routing
range of 100 meters Due to its low power output, ZigBee devices can sustain themselves on a small battery for many months, or even years Reason of choosing ZigBee is the perfect protocol for the quad-copter design. It goes beyond the needed data rate ,and it meets the required range of 100 meters. On top of all of that ZigBee was designed to be a low power and low cost solution Xbee Digi is a member of the ZigBee Alliance and has developed a wide range of networking solutions based on the ZigBee protocol.

XBee and XBee-PRO modules and other XBee-enabled devices provide an easy-to-implement solution that provides functionality to connect to a wide variety of devices These modules are interoperable with other ZigBee devices, including devices from other vendors.

Programmable versions of the XBee-PRO ZB ZigBee module make customizing ZigBee applications easy, even without wireless design expertise. “ So basically XBee is Digi’s own Zigbee based protocol Why use Xbee ??!! higher range of operation
a lower latency time
lower power consumption
the most important feature improved is that the Xbee allows Arduino boards to communicate wirelessly using Zigbee. Xbee ZB Zigbee XBee 2mW PCB Antenna - Series 2 (ZigBee Mesh) WRL-11217 Features

•3.3V @ 40mA
•250kbps Max data rate
•2mW output (+3dBm)
•400ft (120m) range
•Built-in antenna
•Fully FCC certified
•6 10-bit ADC input pins
•8 digital IO pins
•128-bit encryption Components 1)2 - XBee ZNet 2.5 Modules
2)1 - XBee Breakout Board
3)2 - 2mm, 10 pin XBee socket
4)1 - Male Header row for XBee breakout
5)1 - FT232RL Breakout Board
6)male or female headers for the FT232RL Breakout board 7)2 – LEDs
8)1 – Reset Switch
9)Breadboard
10)Jumper wires
11)USB miniB cable
12)Arduino Diecimila
13)XBee Shield from NKC Electronics
14)A computer running Windows
15)3.3V Power Supply – Sparkfun SKU#: PRT-00114 Steps of installation Step 1: Construct the circuit
Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee
Step 4: Update the firmware Step 5: Test the XBee
Step 6:Once more, with feeling Step 8: Sending Serial Data
Step 7: Creating the network Ground penetrating radar is a nondestructive geophysical method that produces a continuous cross-sectional profile The depth of penetration is also determined by the GPR antenna used Applications Road inspections
Geology & geophysics
Concrete inspection and evaluation
Environmental Surveys
Underground tank mapping & leakage
Utility Mapping & Detection Types of GPR 1) 1.0 and 2.0 GHz Horn Antenna 1.0 GHz:-Center Frequency: 1.0 GHzDepth Range: 0-.9 m (0-3 ft)Weight: 7.3 kg (16 lbs)Dimensions: 21x55.6x49.5 cm (8.25x21.9x19.5 in)Model 41000S; Smart ID module 2.0 GHz:-Center Frequency: 2 GHzDepth Range: 0-.75 m (0-2.5 ft)Weight: 7.3 kg (16 lbs)Dimensions: 21x55.6x49.5 cm (8.25x21.9x19.5 in)Model 42000S; Smart ID module 2) 2600 MHz - High Resolution Concrete Antenna:-
The new 2600 MHz is an ultra-high resolution antenna used to inspect concrete structures to locate embedded rebar, post tension cables and conduits. Center Frequency: 2600 MHzDepth Range: to 0.4 m (12 in)Weight: 1.8 kg (4 lbs)Dimensions: 3.8x10.16.5 cm (1.5x4x6.5 in)Model 52600 3)900 MHz - Shielded Antenna The 900 MHz antenna is designed for applications requiring shallow penetration down to 1 m (3 ft.), including void detection, concrete thickness assessment and shallow pipe location. Center Frequency: 900 MHzDepth Range: 0-1 m (0-3 ft)Weight: 2.3 kg (5 lbs)Dimensions: 33x18x8 cm (13x7x3 in)Model 3101D (U.S.), 3101A (International 4)400 MHz - Shielded Antenna The 400 MHz is ideally suited for detection and mapping of utility pipes, as well as shallow engineering and environmental applications. Center Frequency: 400 MHzDepth Range: 0-4 m (0-12 ft)Weight: 5 kg (11 lbs)Dimensions: 30x30x17 cm (12x12x6.5 in)Model 5103A 5)270 MHz - Shielded Antenna The 270 MHz is ideally suited for detection and mapping of utility pipes, as well as shallow engineering and environmental applications Center Frequency: 270 MHz
Depth Range: 0-6 m (0-18 ft)
Weight: 8.6 kg (18.5 lbs)
Dimensions: 45x45x17 cm (18x18x6.5 in)
Model 5104 (U.S.), Model 5104A (International) How does it work? - A typical GPR system has three main components: Transmitter and receiver that are directly connected to an antenna, and a control unit (timing). When the transmitted signal enters the ground, it contacts objects or subsurface layers with different electrical conductivities and dielectric constants. The reflected signals return to the antenna, pass through the antenna, and are received by the digital control unit. The control unit registers the reflections against two-way travel time in nanoseconds and then amplifies the signals. Lowering frequency improves depth of exploration because attenuation primarily increases with frequency The exponential attenuation coefficient determined by the ability of the material to conduct electrical currents. Frequency selection is controlled by two survey requirements exploration depth and resolution length.One can increase exploration depth by increasing the transmitter power. Unfortunately, power must increase exponentially in order to increase depth of exploration.There is equation to predict the exploration depth is conductivity in mS/m
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