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Big Idea 4 AP Biology
Transcript of Big Idea 4 AP Biology
4.A.6.a. Energy flows, but matter is recycled.
4.A.6.b. Changes in regional and global climates and in atmospheric composition influence patterns of primary productivity. (rain and temperature affect producers/thus different biomes)
4.A.6.c. Organisms within food webs and food chains interact.
4.A.6.d. Food webs and food chains are dependent on primary productivity.
4.A.6.e. Models allow the prediction of the impact of change in biotic factors.
4.A.6.e.1 Competition for resources and other factors limits growth and can be described by logistic model.
4.A.6.e.2. Competition for resources, territoriality, health, predation, accumulation of wastes and other factors contribute to density dependent population regulation. In proteins, the specific order of amino acids in a polypeptide (primary structure) interacts with the environment to determine the overall shape of the protein, which also involves secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure and, thus, its function. The R group of an amino acid can be categorized by chemical properties (hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and ionic), and the interactions of these R groups determine structure and function of that region of protein. 4.A.1.a.2 4.C.4: The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem.
4.C.4.a Natural and artificial ecosystems with fewer component parts and with little diversity among the parts are often less resilient to changes in the environment.
4.C.4.b Keystone species, producers, and essential abiotic and biotic factors contribute to maintaining the diversity of an ecosystem. The effects of keystone species on the ecosystem are disproportionate relative to their abundance in the ecosystem, and when they are removed from the ecosystem, the ecosystem often collapses. 4.C.3.b Genetic diversity allows individuals in a population to respond differently to the same changes in environmental conditions. For example:
Not all animals in a population stampede. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/86/Contagion_Poster.jpg/220px-Contagion_Poster.jpg 4.A.6.f. Human activities impact ecosystems on local, regional, and global scales.
4.A.6.f.1. As human populations have increased in numbers, their impact on habitats for other species have been magnified.
4.A.6.f.2 In turn, this has often reduced the population size of the affected species and resulted in habitat destruction and, in some cases, the extinction of species.
4.A.6.g Many adaptations of organisms are related to obtaining and using energy and matter in a particular environment. http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/F/France_India75.gif http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/%E2%80%8Chbase/organic/imgorg/starchcellu.gif http://www.precisionnutrition.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/saturated-unsaturated-fats-molecular-config.jpg http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol115/wyatt/biochem/lipid/P-lipid.gif http://library.thinkquest.org/28751/media/review/figure/peptide.gif 4.A.1.b.2 Proteins have an amino (NH2) end and a carboxyl (COOH) end, and consist of a linear sequence of amino acids connected by the formation of peptide bonds by dehydration synthesis between the amino and carboxyl groups of adjacent monomers. http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectures/aminoacids01.jpg In nucleic acids, biological information is encoded in
sequences of nucleotide monomers. Each nucleotide has
structural components: a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose or
ribose), a phosphate and a nitrogen base (adenine,
thymine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil), DNA and RNA differ
in function and differ slightly in structure, and these
structural differences account for the differing functions. 4.A.1.a.1 4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to
4.A.1. The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule.
4.A.1.a. Structure and function of polymers are derived from the way their monomers are assembled. Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their Interactions possess complex properties. 4.C.3. c Allelic variation within a
population can be modeled by
the Hardy-Weinberg equation. (we’ll do the math in another big idea) http://course1.winona.edu/sberg/Equation/H-W-eqn1.gif http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/edu/learning/5_chemosynthesis/activities/media/chemovsphoto_01.jpg
http://www.bigelow.org/foodweb/chemosynthesis.jpg http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/bioed/webmodules/enzyme1.gif Global climate
change models Predator/prey
Spreadsheet model https://www.math.duke.edu//education/ccp/materials/diffeq/predprey/lynxhare.gif 4.A.5: Communities are composed of populations of
organisms that interact in complex ways.
4.A.5.a. The structure of a community is measured and
described in terms of species composition and species diversity.
4.A.5.b. Mathematical or computer models are used to illustrate and investigate population interactions within and
environmental impacts on a community. http://www.ftexploring.com/photopics/thylakoid1-50.gif 4.A.2.g.3 Chloroplasts have a double outer membrane that creates compartmentalized structure, which supports its function. Within the chloroplasts are membrane-bound structures called thylakoids. Energy-capturing reactions housed in the thylakoids are organized in stacks called “grana”, to produce ATP and NADPH2 which fuel carbon-fixing reactions in the Calvin-Benson Cycle. Carbon fixation occurs in the stroma, where molecules of CO2 are converted to carbohydrates. http://images.tutorvista.com/content/feed/u303/lysosomes%20secondary.gif 4.A.2.e Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed sacs that contain hydrolytic enzymes, which are important in intracellular digestion, the recycling of a cell’s organic materials and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion in a variety of ways. http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/591mitochondria.jpg 4.A.2.d Mitochondria specialize in energy capture and transformation.
4.A.2.d.1 Mitochondria have a double membrane that allows compartmentalization within the mitochondria and is important to its function.
4.A.2.d.2. The outer membrane is smooth, but the inner membrane is highly convoluted, forming folds called cristae.
4.A.2.d.3 Cristae contain
enzymes important to ATP
production; cristae also
increase the surface area
for ATP production. 4.A.2.c The Golgi complex is a
membrane-bound structure that
consists of a series of flattened membrane sacs (cisternae).
4.A.2.c.1 Functions of the Golgi include synthesis and packaging of materials (small molecules) for transport (in vesicles), and production of lysosomes. .2 In most cases,
Smooth ER synthesizes
lipids. http://diseasespictures.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Endoplasmic-Reticulum.jpg 4.A.2.b. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) occurs in two forms: smooth and rough.
4.A.2.b.1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum functions to compartmentalize the cell, serves as mechanical support, provides site-specific protein synthesis with membrane-bound ribosomes and plays a role in intracellular transport. http://fgamedia.org/faculty/cholcroft/Bio45/Bio45_Images/CelluloseVsStarch.jpg 4.A.1.b. 3. The nature of the bonding between carbohydrate subunits determines their relative orientation in the carbohydrate, which then determines the secondary structure of the carbohydrates. http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/biochemistry/sucrosesyn.gif http://www.monashscientific.com.au/GlycerolMolecule.jpg http://biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/bio104/fat.jpg http://labspace.open.ac.uk/file.php/5175/SK183_1_007i.jpg http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/135/flashcards/1108135/jpg/picture31327255242771.jpg http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~uzwiak/AnatPhys/APFallLect2_files/image018.jpg http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/vessels.JPG
http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes5.htm The rate of reaction
increases as substrate
increases until a maximum
rate is achieved.
A competitor will depress
The amount of enzyme
to bind to substrate, along
with the amount of
affects the maximum
rate of the reaction. http://alevelnotes.com/Enzyme-Inhibitors/148 4.B.1.2.c Other molecules and the environment in which the enzyme acts can enhance or inhibit enzyme activity. Molecules can bind reversibly or irreversibly to the active or allosteric sites, changing the activity of the enzyme.
4.B.1.2.d. The change in function of an enzyme can be interpreted from data regarding the concentrations of product or substrate as a function of time. These representations demonstrate the relationship between an enzyme’s activity, the disappearance of substrate, and/or presence of a competitive inhibitor. http://famsbc.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/complexenzymecoenzymesubstrate1.jpg Nonprotein components of certain enzymes are called cofactors. If the cofactor is organic, then it is called a coenzyme. Coenzymes are relatively small molecules compared to the protein part of the enzyme and many of the coenzymes are derived from vitamins. The coenzymes make up a part of the active site, since without the coenzyme, the enzyme will not function. http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Biological_Chemistry/Vitamins,_Cofactors_and_Coenzymes 4.B.1.b.2 Cofactors and coenzymes affect enzyme function; this interaction relates to a structural change that alters the activity rate of the enzyme. The enzyme may only become active when all the appropriate cofactors or coenzymes are present and bind to the appropriate sites on the enzyme. Active site http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/@api/deki/files/6776/=enzyme-substrate1.jpg 4.B.1. Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.
4.B.1.a. Change in the structure of a molecule system may result in a change of the function of the system.
4.B.1.b. The shape of enzymes, active sites and interactions with specific molecules are essential for basic functioning of the enzyme.
4.B.1.b.1 For an enzyme-mediated chemical reaction to occur, the substrate must be complementary to the surface properties, (shape and charge) of the active site. In other words, the substrate must fit into the enzyme’s active site. http://www.umesc.usgs.gov/invasive_species/sea_lamprey/tech_assistance.html Lake trout populations in Lake Superior, already in decline from overfishing and environmental problems, were decimated by the sea lamprey invasion. Initiation of the sea lamprey control program resulted in a quick decline in the numbers of sea lamprey and allowed some recovery in the numbers of lake trout in Lake Superior. Invasive species http://apbrwww5.apsu.edu/thompsonj/Anatomy%20&%20Physiology/2010/2010%20Exam%20Reviews/Exam%201%20Review/RNA_types.png In a sequential manner, these cellular components interact to become the site of protein synthesis where the translation of the genetic instructions yields specific polypeptides. http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/583ribsome.gif 4.A.2.a Ribosomes are small, universal structures comprised of two interacting parts; ribosomal RNA and protein. In a sequential manner, these cellular components interact to become the site of protein synthesis where the translation of the genetic instructions yields specific polypeptides. 4.A.2 The structure and function of subcellular components and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes. http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/glucose/sucrose.gif Carbohydrates are composed of sugar monomers whose structures and bonding with each other by dehydration synthesis determine the properties and functions of the molecules. Illustrative examples include: cellulose vs starch. 4.A.1.a.4 http://www.yellowtang.org/images/lipid_bilayer_c_la_784.jpg In general, lipids are nonpolar; however, phospholipids exhibit structural properties, with polar regions that interact with other polar molecules such as water, and with nonpolar regions where differences in saturation determine the structure and function of lipids. 4.A.1.a.3 http://knowgenetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Bio-1-e1354321656394.png Cytosine
Uracil Deoxyribose or Ribose A nucleotide – RNA or DNA http://sickle.bwh.harvard.edu/SCD-Malaria.jpg http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/images/11autorec.gif 4.C.1.b Multiple copies of alleles or genes (gene duplication) may provide new phenotypes
4.C.1.b.1 A heterozygote may be more advantageous genotype than a homozygote under particular conditions, since with two different alleles, the organism has two forms of proteins that may provide functional resilience in response to environmental stresses.
4.C.1.b.2 Gene duplication creates a situation in which one copy of the gene maintains it’s original function, while the duplicate may evolve a new function. For example: The antifreeze gene in fish.
READ THIS ARTICLE: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110112122511.htm
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/EvolutionOfDuplicateGenes.png/500px-EvolutionOfDuplicateGenes.png http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_kBRxTAj6x3g/TTWn9NJQXOI/AAAAAAAAAA0/fWTHrbdusIA/s1600/hemoglobinmolecule.gif http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003639.htm http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22361/
Different types of phospholipids above.
Many different types of hemoglobin (Hb) exist. The most common ones are HbA, HbA2, HbF, HbS, HbC, Hb H, and Hb M. Healthy adults only have significant levels of HbA and HbA2.Some people may also have small amounts of HbF (which is the main type of hemoglobin in an unborn baby's body). Certain diseases are associated with high HbF levels (when HbF is more than 2% of the total hemoglobin).HbS is an abnormal form of hemoglobin associated with sickle cell anemia. In people with this condition, the red blood cells sometimes have a crescent or sickle shape. The cells easily break down, or can block small blood vessels.HbC is an abnormal form of hemoglobin associated with hemolytic anemia. The symptoms are much milder than they are in sickle cell anemia.Other, less common, abnormal Hb molecules cause anemias 4.C.1 Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.
4.C.1.a. Variations within molecular classes provide cells and organisms with a wider range of functions. For example, Different types of phospholipids in cell membranes, Different types of hemoglobin, MHC proteins, Chlorophylls, Molecular diversity of antibodies in response to an antigen. http://sci.waikato.ac.nz/farm/content/microbiology.html http://resources.teachnet.ie/farmnet/images/Digest4.gif 4.B.2.3 Interactions among cells of a population of unicellular organisms can be similar to those of multicellular organisms, and these interactions lead to increased efficiency and utilization of energy and matter. For example, Bacterial community in the rumen of animals and the bacterial community in and around the deep sea vents. http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/respiratory/alveoli.jpg 4.B.2: Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter.
4.B.2.a. Organisms have areas or compartments that perform a subset of functions related to energy and matter, and these parts contribute to the whole. (Organelles within a cell or Organs within an organ system)
4.B.2.a.1 At the cellular level, the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and for eukaryotes the organelles contribute to the overall specialization and functioning of the cell.
4.B.2.a.2 Within multicellular organisms, specialization of organs contributes to the overall functioning of the organism. For example: Exchange of gases, circulation of fluids, digestion of food, and excretion of wastes (example: urine/feces/lungs/sweat).
http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/37/92937-004-1E4EA526.jpg http://bio1151b.nicerweb.net/Locked/media/ch21/21_11EarlyEmbryoDevelInfoA.jpg http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/KH_lecture_images/animal_dev/FG19_10a.JPG http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/members/sagot/htdocs/team/projects/chromo_net/images/reg.jpg http://www.accessscience.com/loadBinary.aspx?filename=035800FG0010.gif 4.A.3. Interactions between external stimuli and regulated gene expression result in specializiation of cells, tissues, and organs.
a. Differentiation in development is due to external and internal cues that trigger gene regulation by proteins that bind to DNA.
b. Structural and functional divergence of cells in development is due to expression of genes specific to a particular tissue or organ type.
c. Environmental stimuli can affect gene expression in a mature cell. https://wikispaces.psu.edu/download/attachments/42339107/image-1.jpg 4.A.2.g.2 Chloroplasts contain chlorophylls, which are responsible for the green color of a plant and are the key light-trapping molecules in photosynthesis. There are several types of chlorophyll, but the predominant form in plants is chlorophyll a. 4.A.2.gChloroplasts are specialized organelles found in algae and higher plants that capture energy through photosynthesis.
4.A.2.g.1 The structure and function relationship in the chloroplast allows cells to capture the energy available in sunlight and convert it to chemical bond energy via photosythesis. Diversity
interactions Competition and Cooperation
within systems Interactions
Food chains/webs Interactions Big
Idea 4 Ms. Fiser
Darnell-Cookman http://img.bhs4.com/B3/3/B338F7025EDCF512D1E39B0F6AC26108524FD874_large.jpg http://www.popsci.com/files/imagecache/article_image_large/articles/thoreauiris.jpg 4.C.2.b An organism’s adaptation to the local environment reflects a flexible response of it’s genome. For example, Darker fur in cooler regions of the body in certain mammal species. And Alterations in timing of flowering due to climate changes. http://facstaff.cbu.edu/~seisen/ExamplesOfParasitism_files image005.jpg
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_mfDwnCFq5Rc/TS81wlR_lpI/AAAAAAAAADQ/NKDyPLd2QOU/s320/Commensalism.jpg 4.B.3: Interactions between and within populations influence patterns of species distribution and abundance.
4.B.3.a. Interactions between populations affect the distributions and abundance of populations.
4.B.3.a.1 Competition, parasitism, predation, mutualism, and commensalism can affect population dynamics.
4.B.3.a.2. Relationships among interacting populations can be characterized by positive and negative effects, and can be modeled mathematically (predator/prey, epidemiological models (The Plague app), invasive species.
4.B.3.a.3 Many complex symbiotic relationships exist in an ecosystem, and feedback control systems play a role in the functioning of these ecosystems. http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectures/03_21a_enzyme_regulation-L.jpg http://fc07.deviantart.net/fs70/f/2012/109/8/3/biology_made_easy____competitive_inhibition_by_pureblood_pixie-d4wu9a7.png http://library.thinkquest.org/28751/media/review/figure/allosteric.jpg http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab12/primary.html http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/foodchain/trophiclevels.GIF Primary ProductivityPrimary productivity is a term used to describe the rate at which plants and other photosynthetic organisms produce organic compounds in an ecosystem. There are two aspects of primary productivity:•
Gross productivity = the entire photosynthetic production of organic compounds in an ecosystem.•
Net productivity = the organic materials that remain after photosynthetic organisms in the ecosystem have used some of these compounds for their cellular energy needs (cellular respiration). http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-6w_rvBSq4fU/Tt_BD0kFKXI/AAAAAAAAAEI/9sHoZKkbNpw/s1600/food-chain.jpg http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/EMAT6680Fa10/Sutherland/Assignments/Assignment1/img/exponentialgrowth.gif http://www.algebralab.org/img/cb07ae0c-5106-416c-8407-38da526923c6.gif 4.A.5.c Mathematical models and graphical representations are used to illustrate population growth patterns and interactions.
4.A.5.c.1 Reproduction without constraints results in the exponential growth of a population.
4.A.5.c.2 A population can produce a density of individuals that exceeds the system’s resource availability
4.A.5.c.3 As limits to growth due to density-dependent and density-independent factors are imposed, a logistic growth model generally ensues.
4.A.5.c.4 Demographics data with respect to age distributions and fecundity (ability to reproduce) can be used to study human populations. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/images/plantvacuolesfigure1.jpg http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/134/flashcards/822134/jpg/digestive_vacuoles1320334167686.jpg http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/images/plantvacuolesfigure1.jpg 4.A.2.f. A vacuole is a membrane-bound sac that plays roles in intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products. In plants, a large vacuole serves many functions, from storage of pigments or poisonous substances to a role in cell growth. In addition, a large central vacuole allows for a large surface area to volume ratio. http://click4biology.info/c4b/7/images/7.2/5to3(2).gif http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/2950565 4.A.1.b.1. Nucleic acids have ends, defined by the 3’ and 5’ carbons of the sugar in the nucleotide, that determine the direction in which complementary nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis and the direction in which transcription occurs (from 5’ to 3’) 4.A.1.b. Directionality influences
structure and function of the polymer. http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/1x6045660/coloured_sem_of_trichomes_on_leaf_of_elaeagnus_b745338.jpg https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-_WyUlDP6xjs/UIFO_LGgCPI/AAAAAAAAmYc/IqNGLaqioHY/w49 http://www.hydrangeashydrangeas.com/images/hydrangeasSAfrica.jpg 4.C.2 Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.
This means: Gene expression is triggered by environment.
4.C.2.a. Environmental factors influence many traits both directly and indirectly.
Such as: Height and weight of humans (nutrition), Flower color based on soil pH, Seasonal fur color in arctic animals (day length and temperature), Sex determination in reptiles (temperature), Density of plant hairs as a function of herbivory, (The more trichomes, the less attractive to herbivores; damage from herbivores triggers more trichomes) Effect of adding lactose to a Lac + bacterial culture, effect of increased UV on melanin production in animals, presence of the opposite mating type on pheromones production in yeast and other fungi. http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/ge19/29c.gif http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0361476X0900040X-gr1.jpg http://www.peptide2.com/peptide/Antibody_wikipedia_the_free_files/255px-Antibody.png http://www.nps.gov/yell
http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/environmental-studies/courses/es-399%20home/es-399-06/projects/sedlacek/Files/pageoneone.htm 4.B.3.b A population of organisms has properties that are different from those individuals that make up the population. The cooperation and competition between individuals contributes to these different properties.
4.B.3.c.Species-species and environmental catastrophes, geological events, the sudden influx/depletion of abiotic resources or increased human activities affect species distribution and abundance. For example, loss of keystone species, Kudzu, Dutch elm disease. Mader or
Campbell http://jessicaz.me.cmu.edu/molecular_data/NMJ_files/image002.jpg http://www.docstoc.com/docs/75197892/Circulatory-Respiratory-Systems 4.A.4.b.Interactions and coordination between systems provide biological activities Tasmanian Devil Corn Rust http://promega.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/taz.jpg?w=500 http://cabiplantwise.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/coffee-rust.png Infectious Tumor Disease – lack of
genetic diversity http://www.life.illinois.edu/paige/images/pchick2.jpg Bottleneck effect/disease http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birds/california-condor/ Bottleneck effect
Diversity. http://www.wildlifeextra.com/resources/li 4.C.3: The level of variation in a population affects population dynamics.
4.C.3.a Population ability to respond to changes in the environment is affected by genetic diversity. Species and populations with little genetic diversity are at risk for extinction. For example: California Condors, Black-footed ferrets, prairie chickens, potato blight causing the potato famine.
(potato blight on previous slide) Corn rust affects on agricultural crops; Tasmanian devils and infectious cancer. Near extinction gives little genetic diversity in repopulation. http://www.atmos.washington.edu/gcg/RTN/Figures/RTN7.sm.gif http://exoplanet.as.arizona.edu/~lclose/teaching/a202/continental_drift.gif 4.B.4.b Geological and meteorological events impact ecosystem distribution.
1. Biogeographical studies illustrate these changes. For example: El Nino, Continental Drift and Meteor impact on dinosaurs. http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/amherst/drawing.jpeg http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/relevance/potatoes.gif http://www.myguideireland.com/images/stories/Ireland/about-ireland-2/history/famine/famine-memorial-dublin.jpg 4.B.4. Distribution of local and global ecosystems changes over time. For example: Logging, slash and burn agriculture, urbanization, monocropping, infrastructure development (dams, transmission lines, roads), and global climate change threaten ecosystems and life on Earth.
An introduced species can exploit a new niche free of predators or competitors, thus exploiting new resources. Introduction of new diseases can devastate native species. For example, Dutch elm disease, potato blight, and small pox (historic example: Native Americans) Field data Symbiotic relationships http://www.heb.fas.harvard.edu/Press3/images/Fig-2.png http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5750e/y5750e0r.jpg http://www.goodgardeners.org.uk/images/gifs/img_art15.gif Accumulation of
Health/disease territoriality resources http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/0830230406002.png http://online.santarosa.edu/homepage/cgalt/BIO10-Stuff/Ch19-Ecology-Populations/Limits-to-Population-Growth-Density-Dependent-Independent-Factors.jpg https://sites.google.com/site/mrjlewis2011/biology11/lesson2-populationdynamics/Image(3).jpg Production
elimination Digestion and
absorption Root- absorb
Transpiration, etc. http://health.rush.edu/healthinformation/graphics/images/en/10246.jpg http://www.umm.edu/graphics/images/en/8940.jpg http://heightstechnology.edublogs.org/files/2009/10/Parts-of-Plant.jpg 4.A.4:Organisms exhibit complex properties due to interactions between their constituent parts.
4.A.4.a. Interactions and coordination between organs provide essential biological activities. http://img.ehowcdn.com/article-new/ehow/images/a07/1k/rq/increase-melanin-body-800x800.jpg http://www.vitaminsestore.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Skin-Melanin.jpg When lactose added to environment,
Lactase was produced by bacteria.
(In lab, lactase making gene was substituted with GFP gene! http://www.edvotek.com/222 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/Yeast_mating_scheme.svg/386px-Yeast_mating_scheme.svg.png