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A child is not a miniature adult

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petra neyrinck

on 23 November 2013

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Transcript of A child is not a miniature adult

A child is not a miniature adult
Cognitive development
Moral development
Cognitive development is based on “schemas” (structures or ideas to help understand the world. Schemas are based on:
* Yourself (self schema)
* People (people schema)
* Events (event schema)
* Roles (role schema)
The student acquires new information based old schemata (assimilation). Once the information is incorporated (adaptation), new skills or ideas are learned (accommodation)

Language is crucial in developing higher ordering thinking and self- regulation.

Piaget describes 4 stages of cognitive development. Most importantly for primary teaching is stage 2 and 3.

Between 2-7 years of age: Preoperational stage:
students find it difficult to understand each others point of view.
Students need visuals to make meaning of their learning.
Between age of 7-11: Operational stage:
Students need concrete materials to manipulate to make meaning of their world.

Vygotsky describes 2 stages in development (Barbarin, 2009). The student moves from a “present” level of knowledge to a “potential” level of knowledge through a zone called “Zone of proximal development”.

Before the age of 7:
Between the age of 3-7, students vocalise learning. This is necessary for problem solving and learning new concepts (ego centric self-talk)

After age of 7:
Students internalise speech. Reasoning, evaluating and planning is now possible.

According to Psychohawks (2010) , children’s thinking moves through stages based on age.

According to Psychohawks (2010), human psychological processes develop as a result of interactions and collaboration

Why do teachers need to know about cognitive development?

Moral development is the process through which individuals develop attitudes and behaviours towards others based on social, cultural norms, rules and laws (Psychohawks, 2010).
Why do teachers need to know about moral development?
Theorists who have explored moral development were Piaget, Kohlberg, Turiel, Gilligan and Bandura.
Piaget describes 2 stages in moral judgement.
* stage 1: before age 9 : heteronomous: the student is egocentric and upholds the law
* stage 2: after age 9: autonomous: the student has an internal mode of understanding what is right/wrong.

Kohlberg describes 3 levels of development. Most interesting for teaching in primary schools are level 1-2.
Level 1: before age of 9: Preconventional: the student is egocentric-behaviour is based on fear of punishment
Level 2: after age of 9: Conventional: the student is able to understand feelings of others

Foundation to year 2
Foundation to year 2 characterised by :
rapid language development
ego centric behaviour
focus is short
middle childhood: year 3-6
Middle childhood is accordingly to Vercillo (2012) characterised by:
identity identification
peer role models
the need for success
keeping a purpose
Example for year 2 : hands on activities in maths: real meassuring of objects to understand size.

Example for year 5 :
Project based learning in small groups: who am i? exploring identity in 21st century
Provide verbal feedback
Provide peer interaction
Provide peer evaluation
Allow learning from wrong answer
Encourage constant thinking
Provide concrete materials
show empathy and care (role model)
Enhance creativity
allow role play as identity plays a crucial role in development
provide positive feedback and encourage success
provide firm boundaries and set the mood for learning (students need to feel safe and supported)
scaffold learning
role model appropriate behaviour
provide structure
show acceptance for diversity
minimise inappropriate rebellion

Daniels, D. & Shumow, L., (2003). Child development and classroom teaching: a review of the literature and implications for educating teachers. Journal of applied developmental psychology. 23 (5), pp.495-526.
Davies, D. (2010). Child development : A practitioner's guide (3 ed),pp. 365-367: Guilford Publications.
Marcom Projects. (2010). Moral development in children: theories, stages, impact. Retrieved from http://swinburne.kanopystreaming.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/video/moral-development-children-theories-stages-impact
Psychohawks. (2010). Theories of cognitive development: Jean Piaget. Retrieved from http://psychohawks.wordpress.com/2010/09/05/theories-of-cognitive-development-jean-piaget/.
Psychohawks. (2010). Theories of cognitive development: Lev Vygotsky. Retreived from http://psychohawks.wordpress.com/2010/11/03/theories-of-cognitive-development-lev-vygotsky/.
Stetsenko, A., & Vianna, E. (2009). Bridging developmentall theory and educational practice. In O. A. Barbarin & B. H. Wasik (Eds), Handbook of child development and early education: Research to Practice (pp. 38-56). New York: Guilford Publications.
Thing Link. (2013). Kohlberg's theory. Retrieved from https://www.thinglink.com/scene/357981216911130624
Vercillo, K. (2012). Why it is important for teachers to understand child development stages. Retrieved from http://kathrynvercillo.hubpages.com/hub/WhyTeachersMustUnderstandChildDevelopment.
Webb, P.K. (2012). Piaget: implications for teaching. Theory into practice.19(2), 93-97. Retrieved from http://calteach.ucsc.edu/aboutus/documents/Webb-Piaget.pdf.
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