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Chapter 12 Public Speaking Preparation and Delivery
Transcript of Chapter 12 Public Speaking Preparation and Delivery
Densan Garrick - Carissa Smith Public Speaking Preparation and Delivery Word Your Speech Step 7 Construct Your Conclusion and Introduction Step 8 Rehearse Your Speech Step 9 Step 10 Deliver Your Speech Methods of Delivery Rehearsing the Speech Methods of Delivery The Impromptu Method: Speech without preparation The Extemporaneous Method: An outlined speech. The Manuscript Method: A written and read speech. Rehearsing the Speech Rehearse the speech from beginning to end, rather than in parts.
Time the speech during each rehearsal.
Rehearse the speech under conditions as close as possible to those under which you'll deliver it.
Rehearse the speech in front of a full-length mirror to help you see how you'll appear to the audience.
Do not interrupt your rehearsal to make notes or changes.
Rehearse at least three or four times, or as long as your rehearsals continue to result in improvements. Conclusion Why do I need a manuscript?
When speaking you should have your own style or uniqueness that makes
your audience engaged.
Use personal pronouns: When giving a speech say "I" "me" "he""she" to
make the speech seem personal. Avoid terms such as "this speaker" "you"
or "the listeners". These expressions are overly formal and distance
the audience from the speaker.
Direct Questions to the Audience: You should engage your audience by
asking them questions so they can interact with you.
Create Immediacy: Immediacy is connectedness, a relatedness, a oneness
with your listeners. Personal Style Appropriate language is consistent in tone with your topic, your
audience and your own self image.
Speak at the Appropriate level of Formality: Although public speaking
takes place usually takes place in a relatively formal
situation, relatively informal speech seems to work best.
Avoid Written Style Expressions: Don’t use expressions that are more
familiar in writing, such as "the former" or "the latter". These
expressions make the listeners feel as though you are reading to them
rather than talking with them.
Avoid Slang, vulgar, and offensive expressions: Be careful not to
offend your audience with language that offensive to any one. You want
your audience to feel comfortable and respected Appropriateness In order to have clarity when speaking you must:
Be Economical: Do not waste words when speaking.
Use Specific Terms and Numbers: The more specific you are when
speaking the more detailed the picture you are trying to get the
listener to visualize becomes.
Use Guide Phrases: You should use guide phrases to help listeners see
that you are moving from one idea to another.
Use Short Terms: You should always try and favor the short word over
the long word. Favor the more commonly used term opposed rare terms. Clarity
When speaking you should select words that make your ideas vivid, that make them come alive in the listeners' minds
When speaking add vividness to your speech by..
Use Active Verbs: Favor Verbs that communicate activity. Try replacing
regular verbs with action verbs.
Use figure of Speech: A figure of speech is a stylish device in which
words are used beyond their literal meaning. One of the best ways to
achieve vividness is to use figures of speech.
Use Imagery: Another way to inject vividness is by words that create imagery for your audience. Vividness Conclusion THEN Introduction The Conclusion The Introduction This can be unavoidable at times. An example of the impromptu method of speech is commenting on a speech you may have just heard. Voice Paralanguage Dimensions (Volume, Rate, Articulation/Pronunciation, Pauses)
1.Volume - Relates to the loudness or softness of one’s voice. Example: increasing your volume for key words or phrases and lowering your volume when talking about something serious.
2.Rate - Your speech rate is at the speed in which you speak. If you talk too fast, you deprive your listeners of the time that you need to digest what you’re saying. If you talk to slow, your listener’s thoughts will wonder.
3.Articulation/Pronunciation – Articulation (speech organs interfering with air stream from the lungs) deals with the different movements that produce different sounds. Pronunciation is the production of syllables and words according to the accepted standard. Body Action Four Channels of Body Action
1. Eye Contact (most important channel) – Either you give not enough eye contact or you can give too much. Not enough contact entails that you are distant or unconcerned about what’s going on. Too much contact entails that things are getting intense or you become offensive.
2. Facial Expressions – Appropriate facial expressions will express concerns for public interaction and communicating comfortably. Negative facial expressions will express prevent relaxation and reveal nervous feelings. With time and practice, your facial expressions can come appropriately and automatically.
3. Gestures/Posture – These particular body actions help illustrate verbal messages. Avoid putting hands in pocket; leaning on desk, self-manipulation signals ill-at-ease feeling.
4. Movement – Use movement to emphasize transition and to introduce important assertions. Be careful to appear hurried. Move too little – distant and fearful movement
Move too much – Leads audience to just concentrate on movement. Evaluating – Asking yourself questions at the end of speech (Is the speech’s thesis clear and limited to one main idea, Is the speech adequately researched)
Expressing – Constructive Criticism and the way you go about saying it is very important. Learn to say things in a positive way, be specific, culturally-sensitive, limit criticism. Bad Comments: Lying and saying it was really great when it wasn’t, saying you needed better research (doesn’t specify), the speech was weak. Evaluating and Expressing Evaluation Gov-ern-ment Gov-a-ment Wanna Want To Errors of Omission (Articulation) Wader Waiter Ax Ask Errors of Substitution (Articulation) Acrost Across Athalete Athlete Errors of Addition (Articulation) homage
Mischievous Errors of Accent (Pronunciation) The conclusions second function is to provide closure – to give the speech a crisp and definite end. Don’t leave your audience wondering whether or not you’ve finished.
Use a Quotation: A quotation that summarizes your thesis or provides an interesting perspective on your point of view often provides effective closure. Make sure that it is clearly and directly related to the purpose of your speech or else the audience will be confused.
Pose a Challenge or Question: You may want to end your speech with a question or challenge.
Motivate Your Audience to Do Something: Remind your audience of what they should do after they’ve heard the speech.
Thank the Audience: Speakers usually thank their audience. Relate the thanks with the thesis of your speech.
Example: “I really appreciate your attention and hope you’ll join us on Tuesday to vote for the next President of the United States of America.” Restate Your Thesis: Restate the point of your speech (Thesis) or what you hoped to achieve with the speech.
Restate the Importance of Your Thesis: Tell the audience why your topic or thesis is so important.
Restate Your Main Points: Reiterate your main points. Summarize In your conclusion, summarize your main points and make closing remarks. Close Ask a Question: Questions are effective because they are a change from normal statements and involve the audience.
Refer to the Specific Context: Instead of referring to specific people, you may want to note the relevance of specific contect.
Use Illustrations or Dramatic or Humorous Stories: Use this witty tactic to draw and maintain the audiences attention.
Other ways to gain the audience’s attention: Use visual aids, short music or video clips, a dramatic, humorous or interesting quote or startling statistics or series of little known facts. In your introduction, focus the audience’s attention on your topic. Then work to maintain that attention throughout your speech. Gain Attention Previewing what you’re going to say will help your listeners follow your thoughts more closely. You can orient the audience in several ways:
• Give the audience a general idea of your subject.
• Give a detailed preview of your main points.
• Identify the goal you hope to achieve. Orient the Audience Avoiding Some Common Faults Below are some few tips for avoiding the mistakes that beginning speakers often make in introducing and concluding their speeches. • Don’t start your speech immediately. Survey your audience, make eye contact and engage their attention.
• Don’t display discomfort or displeasure. People prefer listening to a speaker who shows that they enjoy speaking to them.
• NEVER APOLOGIZE.
• Don’t preface your introduction. Don’t bein with common yet ineffective statements such as “Beofre I begin my speech, I want to say…”.
• Don’t introduce new material in your conclusion.
• Don’t race away from the speaker’s stand. Show no signs of relief and focus your attention on whatever activity is taking place. Transitions
Internal Summaries Use transition words – words or phrases that connect to the main points of your speech.
Between the intro and the body of the speech
Between the body and the conclusion
Examples of transition words: Also, and on the other hands.
Ways to transition
• “First” “my next point” is both transitional words that can be used at the beginning of an introduction.
• To signal that you are drawing a conclusion from a previous statement. Words like “thus” “therefore” and “so as you can see” are a great way to show the transition.
• To alert the audience that you are introducing a new topic use words like “however” “also consider”
• To remind the audience of what you just said the phrase “in addition “works best.
Internal summary- is a statement that summarizes all the statements that you have already discussed. Outlines Preparation Template Delivery 1 2 3 1. The introduction is first use to gain attention and stress importance of topic.
2. The body which should generally have 3 key points.
3. The conclusion which reinforces all the key points your topic. A guide used to fill in information in certain places. It ensures that you are well organized.
3 main points of a template are the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. Most speech coaches and instructors recommend the use of three index card. One of the advantages of using index cards is that it allows you to condense your delivery into keywords and phrases.
In your outline be brief don’t allow the outline to stand in between your audience and you.
Be delivery - minded include any delivery guides that you wish to remember while your speaking.
Rehearse what you plan on saying over and over until you become confident and ready to present. The delivery outline is a very important in presenting the speech. - Language in public speaking: Use language to best achieve your purposes and construct effective introductions and conclusions.
- Rehearsal and Delivery: Rehearse your speech efficiently and effectively and deliver your speech with effective voice and body action.
- Speech Criticism: Critically analyze a speech and express that criticism constructively. What You Will Learn Today When giving a speech with a small group it often requires a powerful style,a style that is certain,definite,and persuasive.
-Dont hesitate: make sure you sound prepared and certain of what you are trying to say.
-Dont use too many intensifiers: If you use intensifiers it will make your speech sound monotonous and doesn't allow you to stress what you do want to ephasize
-Avoid Disqualifiers: If there are disqualifiers in your speech , it shows a lack of competence and a feeling of uncertainty.
-Dont use self critical statements: it shows a lack of confidence to your audience and make public your own inadequacies Power When giving a speech it requires an effective public speaking style that requires special attention to the construction of sentences.
-Use short rather than long sentences: Short sentences are more forceful and economical. You don't want your essay to wordy.
Use direct rather than indirect sentences:Direct senteneces are easier to understand. Make sure your sentences are clear and forceful
Use Activer rather than Passive sentences: Active sentences are easier to understand. They also make your speech livelier and more vivid.
Use positive rather than Negative: positive sentences are easier to comprehend and remember. Sentence Construction