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Transcript of Forklift Safety
Provide Electra Cord employees with proper training to ensure the safety of our employees.
-Types, Features, and Physics
-Inspecting the vehicle
-Driving the Truck
-LPG for Lift Trucks
-Battery and Charging
-Specific Truck and Workplace Training
- Transports material
to and from trucks
- Transports material
around the shop
- Used by
-The nameplate (also called the data plate) provides important information for the forklift operator,
including the fuel type, forklift weight, and capacity.
-Operators should read the nameplate to know the forklift’s capabilities and limitations.
-Do not operate a truck with an illegible or missing nameplate.
Ensure every truck has its durable, corrosion-resistant nameplate legibly inscribed with the following information:
- Truck model and serial number
- Truck weight
- Designation of compliance with the mandatory requirements of ASME B56.1, "Safety Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks," applicable to the manufacturer
- Type designation to show conformance with the requirements, such as those prescribed by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., and Factory Mutual Research Corporation
Striking ceiling fixtures, low hanging lamps, heaters.
Striking doorways and semi-trailer and truck ceilings.
Requirements and Recommended Practices: Know the dynamic ranges of your vehicle and determine whether your forklift can do the task safely in the space available.
The clearance needed by the mast ranges from the lowest point at the forklift's Overall Lowered Height (OALH) to the highest point at its Overall Raised Height (OARH).
The clearance needed by the forks ranges from the lowest point of the forklift's Free Fork Height (FFH) without the mast extended to the highest point at its Maximum Fork Height (MFH) with the mast extended.
Consider these two factors together to determine if the forklift can do the job in the space available.
Evaluate the height limitations for entry and safe travel of the mast into the space where the load is to be lifted and lowered (OAH).
Evaluate the height requirements for the forks (FFH) and (MFH) for lifting the load and lowering it, without extending the mast past the height limitations of the space (OARH).
Determine if the forklift can do the job and what precautions the operator must take.
Consider Overall Lowered Height (OALH)
Determining whether your forklift can enter:
-aisles with low hanging ceiling fixtures,
-such as sprinklers
-trucks and semi-trailers
(about 8 foot clearance required)
-other confined spaces
-Potential Hazards: Striking doorways, ceiling fixtures
-Requirements and Recommended Practices: Know your mast height with the forks at their lowest point (OAH) and the clearance your truck requires.
-Do not enter doorways, confined spaces or semi-trailer containers or trucks without adequate clearance.
-Evaluate whether your forklift can adequately do the job in the space available. The ability to enter the space must be considered with the requirements for lifting within the space to determine whether the forks can lift the load to the required height.
Consider Free Fork Height (FFH)
-Determining whether your forklift can lift the load to the needed stack height without extending the mast or exceeding the overall lowered height of the mast.
-Potential Hazards: Damage to racking, pallets
-Requirements and Recommended Practices: Know the height that your forks can reach without extending the mast (FFH).
-Evaluate the fork height required to load and clear the top pallet from a double stack within the confines of a truck or semi-trailer.
Consider Overall Lowered Height (OALH) with the Free Fork Height (FFH) to determine if the truck can safely load within the confines of the space.
-For example, if the clearance to enter a truck trailer is 8 1/2 feet and the un-extended mast of the truck is 8 feet, the question is whether the free fork height is sufficient to reach the double stacked pallets in the truck.
-Lifting the forks higher by extending the mast to reach the higher pallets may cause the extended mast to puncture a hole in the roof of the truck. This is a common accident that would be avoided if the proper forklift is used for the job and the operator is aware of the limitations of the confined space.
Determining whether your forklift can lift the load to the needed rack or stack height with adequate mast clearance.
-Potential Hazards: Striking overhead fixtures, sprinkler systems, heating elements.
-Striking through roof of semi-trailer or truck.
-Striking through ceiling of confined space.
-Requirements and Recommended Practices:
-Know your fully extended mast height with the forks at their highest point (OARH) and the clearance your truck requires.
-Evaluate the overhead obstructions prior to extending the mast.
-Never travel with the load elevated.
-Be cautious when high tiering. Carefully tilt mast forward to deposit load. Do not exceed stated capacity at highest stack heights.
Consider Overall Raised
Fork Height (MFH)
Determining whether your forklift can lift the load to the highest stack with adequate fork clearance.
-Potential Hazards: Damage to racking, pallets.
-Struck by falling objects.
-Requirements and Recommended Practices:
-Know the maximum height your forks can reach with the mast extended. Know whether your forklift can adequately do the job assigned.
-Evaluate whether your forklift can lift the load to the highest stack with adequate fork clearance.
Forklifts have a “stability triangle”.
-A vertical line extending from the center of gravity of the vehicle and load combination must be inside of the stability triangle to prevent the forklift from tipping forward, falling sideways or dropping its load.
-The following can affect the center of gravity and cause it to shift outside of the Stability Triangle, causing the forklift to tip over:
-Load exceeding the rated capacity;
-Unevenly stacked load;
-Traveling down a ramp with the load facing downhill;
-Raising a load on one fork only;
-The addition of attachments; or
-Slinging loads beneath the forks.
-There are three ways a counterbalance forklift can tipover forwards or sideways:
-It can tip forward with the contact points of the drive axle tyres and the ground acting as the pivot;
-It can tip sideways to the left with tipover initially pivoting along a line through the lefthand front tyre contact point and the pivot point of the rear steer axle; or
-It can tip sideways to the right with tipover initially pivoting along a line through the right hand front tyre contact point and the pivot point of the rear steer axle. These threelines combined define the stability triangle as shown in the diagram.
Centre of Gravity
The forklift's centre of gravity changes depending on whether it is moving or stationary, whether it is carrying a load, and the weight of the load that is being carried.
-When a forklift is stationary, the center of gravity is straight down through the stability triangle, so the forklift can't tip over.
-But when a load is placed on the forks, the center of the gravity moves toward the front axle. Once the load exceeds the vehicle's maximum capacity, the forklift will tip forward. When a driver tries to lift a load that is behind the capacity of the vehicle, the steer axle will be lifted off the ground.
-When a forklift is driving up or down a hill or when it is traveling around a corner at a higher than recommended rate of speed, or when the forklift brakes or accelerates too quickly, forces are developed that act on the forklift sideways or to the front of rear.
-If the sum of all these forces cause the center of gravity to pas outside the stability triangle, the vehicle will tip either forward or backward. And when heavy loads are added to the forks, the center of gravity moves forward closer to the front axle and the vehicle becomes progressively less stable.
-Raising the load reduces stability in all tip over directions. Smaller side, front or rear forces can cause forward or side tipovers as a result.
Centre of mass
Any physical object has a point located in three dimensions where it acts as though all its mass is located. This is known as its centre of mass.
-It is a point about which the forklift would balance if placed on top of a pointed support.
-When the forklift is stationary, the only force acting on this point is the force of gravity Vertically down. For a stationary forklift, provided this centre of mass is within the stability triangle, the forklift will neither tip forwards or sideways.
-When we place an increasing load on the fork tynes, the centre of mass of the forklift and load combined moves forward towards the front axle.
-If sufficient load is added the forklift will reach a point where it tips forward. This gene rally occurs if an operator tries to lift a load that is much too heavy for the forklift, and the steer axle lifts off the ground.
-centre of mass and stability when a forklift travels on a slope, or when a forklift is traveling around a corner at some speed, or when a forklift brakes or accelerates, forces are developed that act on the forklift sideways or to the front or rear.
-If the sum of all the forces acting on the centre of mass act such that they pass outside the stability triangle, then the forklift either tips forwards of sideways.
-As noted above, adding load to the tynes makes the centre of mass of the forklift and tynes combined move forward closer to the forward tipover axis of the stability triangle. The Forklift becomes progressively less stable in respect of forward tip over. However the centre of mass at the same time is moving away from the two other tipping axis. So the Forklift becomes more stable in respect of tipping sideways. Hence forklifts are much more likely to tip sideways when empty – 75% of these incidents occur when the forklift is empty. And they are more likely to tip forward when loaded.
Tipover Sideways vs Tipover Forwards
-Forklifts shall be inspected before being placed in service and shall not be placed in service if the examination shows any condition adversely affecting the safety of the vehicle.
-Such examination shall be made at least daily before each shift.
-Industrial trucks used on a round the clock basis shall be examined before each shift.
-Defects, when found, shall be immediately reported and corrected.
-Establish and implement an inspection program.
-At the start of each shift, the operator should check the forklift assigned to assure that it is in safe working order.
-If for any reason the operator believes that the forklift is unsafe to drive or operate, it should be immediately reported to the supervisor.
-Unless qualified, the operator should not attempt to make any repairs. Only qualified and authorized personnel should be permitted to maintain, repair and adjust forklifts. The employer shall not perform modifications and additions that affect capacity and safe operation without manufacturers prior written approval. Capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be changed accordingly.
-If the forklift is equipped with front end attachments, other than factory installed attachments, the employer shall request that the forklift be marked to identify the attachments and show the approximate weight of the forklift and attachment combination at maximum elevation with load laterally centered.
-The operator shall see that all nameplates and markings are in place and are maintained in a legible condition.
When a Defect is Found
-Any forklift in an unsafe operating condition shall be removed from service.
-All repairs shall be made by authorized personnel.
-Remove the forklift from service and tag it out of service until the defect can be repaired or the forklift can be replaced.
-Establish and implement an inspection and preventive maintenance program to minimize the possibility of employees using unsafe forklift.
-Operating and safety instruction outlined in manufacturers manuals must be followed.
-Forklift dealers also can provide sound advice on proper lubricants, parts, tools and procedures, and may also perform truck maintenance under contract.
-No repairs shall be made in Class I, II, and III locations.
-No forklift truck shall be operated with a leak in the fuel system until the leak has been corrected.
-Those repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of forklift that involve fire hazards shall be conducted only in locations designated for such repairs.
Fuel tanks shall not be filled while the engine is running.
Spillage of oil or fuel shall be avoided and shall be carefully removed and the fuel tank cap replaced before restarting the engine.
Open flames shall not be used for checking gasoline level in fuel tanks or for checking electrolyte levels in storage batteries.
Forklifts in need of repairs to the electrical system shall have the battery disconnected prior to such repairs.
All parts of any such forklift requiring replacement shall be replaced only by parts equivalent as to safety with those used in the original design.
-Forklift shall not be altered so that the relative positions of the various parts are different from what they were when originally received from the manufacturer.
-Forklift shall not be altered either by the addition of extra parts not provided by the manufacturer or by the elimination of any parts without manufacturers written authorization.
-Additional counter weighing of forklifts shall not be done unless approved by the forklift manufacturer.
-Any vehicle that emits hazardous sparks or flames from the exhaust system shall immediately be removed from service and not returned to service until the cause for the emission of such sparks and flames has been eliminated.
-Water mufflers shall be filled daily or as frequently as is necessary to prevent depletion of the supply of water below 75% of the filled capacity.
-Vehicles with mufflers having screens or other parts that may become clogged shall not be operated while such screens or parts are clogged.
-When the temperature of any part of any forklift is found to be in excess of its normal operating temperature, thus creating a hazardous condition, the vehicle shall be removed from service. The forklift shall not be returned to service until the cause for such overheating has been eliminated.
-Powered industrial trucks shall be kept in a clean condition, free of lint, excess oil, and grease. Noncombustible agents should be used for cleaning trucks. Low flash point (below 100 degrees F) solvents shall not be used. High flash point (at or above 100 degrees F) solvents may be used. Precautions regarding toxicity, ventilation, and fire hazard shall be consonant with the agent or solvent used.
-Powered industrial trucks originally approved for the use of gasoline for fuel may be converted to liquefied petroleum gas fuel provided the complete conversion results in a truck which embodies the features specified for LP or LPS designated trucks. The conversion equipment shall be approved in writing by the manufacturer.
General Forklift Operating Rules
The operator shall:
• maintain a safe distance (recommended 3'-5') from the edge of ramps or platforms while on any elevated dock, or platform or freight car;
• assure sufficient headroom under overhead installations, lights, pipes, sprinkler system, etc.;
• observe all traffic safety rules, including authorized plant speed limits;
• maintain a safe distance, approximately three truck lengths from the forklift ahead, and the forklift shall be kept under control at all times;
• yield the right of way to pedestrians;
• yield the right of way to ambulances, fire trucks, or other vehicles in emergency situations;
• slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed;
• look in the direction of, and keep a clear view of, the path of travel;
• travel with the load trailing if the load being carried obstructs forward view;
• ascended or descended grades slowly.
- When ascending or descending grades in excess of 10%, loaded trucks shall be driven with the load upgrade.
- On all grades the load and load engaging means shall be tilted back if applicable, and raised only as far as necessary to clear the road surface.
• Operate at a speed, under all travel conditions, that will permit the forklift to be brought to a stop in a safe manner;
• slow down for wet and slippery floors;
• properly secure dock board or bridge plates before they are driven over. Dock board or bridge plates shall be driven over carefully and slowly and their rated capacity never exceeded; and
-Note any oil or fuel leakage from any forklift and report the deficiency to supervisors immediately.
The operator shall not:
• operate a forklift under the influence of prescription or over the counter medications that may interfere with safe operation of the forklift in any manner (i.e., drowsy, dizzy, loss of attention);
• drive forklifts up to anyone standing in front of a bench or other fixed object;
• run over loose objects on the roadway surface;
• allow persons to stand or pass under the elevated portion of any forklift, whether loaded or empty;
• park closer than eight feet from the center of railroad tracks;
• allow any person to ride on forklift except the operator, unless the forklift has provisions (additional seating authorized by the manufacturer) for passengers;
• place arms or legs between the uprights of the mast or outside the running lines of the forklift;
• use forklift for opening or closing freight doors;
• block fire aisles, access to stairways, or fire equipment with the forklift or the load being handled;
• pass other forklifts traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations;
• participate in stunt driving or horseplay; or
• push or tow other forklifts.
An overhead guard shall be used as protection against falling objects.
Note: Overhead guards are intended to offer protection from the impact of small packages, boxes, bagged material, etc., representative of the job application, but not to withstand the impact of a falling capacity load.
Driving the truck
General Loading Practices
Portable and powered dockboards shall be strong enough to carry the load imposed on them.
Portable dockboards shall be secured in position, either by being anchored or equipped with devices that will prevent slippage.
Powered dockboards shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Commercial Standard CS202 56 (1961) “Industrial Lifts and Hinged Loading Ramps” published by the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Handholds, or other effective means, shall be provided on portable dockboards to permit safe handling.
Positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars from being moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position.
Wheel stops or other recognized positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations.
The brakes of highway trucks shall be set and wheel chocks placed under the rear wheels to prevent the trucks from rolling while they are boarded with powered industrial trucks.
Fixed jacks may be necessary to support a semi trailer and prevent upending during the loading or unloading when the trailer is not coupled to a tractor.
Brakes shall be set and wheel blocks shall be in place to prevent movement of trucks, trailers, or railroad cars while loading or unloading.
• Fixed jacks may be necessary to support a semi trailer during loading or unloading when the trailer is not coupled to a tractor.
• The flooring of trucks, trailers, and railroad cars shall be checked for breaks and weakness before they are driven onto.
Only stable or safely arranged loads shall be handled. Caution shall be exercised when handling off center loads that cannot be centered.
Only loads within the rated capacity of the forklift truck shall be handled.
The long or high (including multiple tiered) loads that may affect capacity shall be adjusted.
Forklift equipped with attachments shall be operated as partially loaded trucks when not handling a load.
A load engaging means (forks) shall be placed under the load as far as possible; the mast shall be carefully tilted backward to stabilize the load.
Extreme care shall be used when tilting the load forward or backward, particularly when high tiering.
• Tilting forward with load engaging means elevated shall be prohibited except to pick up a load.
• An elevated load shall not be tilted forward except when the load is in a deposit position over a rack or stack.
• When stacking or tiering, only enough backward tilt to stabilize the load shall be used.
What should an operator do when handling propane fuel?
• Position the tank so the liquid propane does not come in contact with the relief valve.
• Make sure the locking pin engages into the cylinder.
• Make sure the valve is closed tightly.
• Store the cylinder outside, in an upright position, in an area where it can be secured and is protected from being struck.
• Put the cylinder down gently. Do not drop, dent or damage.
• Always protect the valve from
• Avoid contact with liquid propane,
as it can cause
• Wear protective gloves while making or
• Ensure that only qualified persons repair carburet
ors and fuel supply
• For repairs, use only components that agencies such as the
(Canadian Standards Association) have approved.
• Exchange removable cylinders outdoors or in well-ventilated areas, away from sources of ignition.
• Close the valve before breaking connections.
LPG for Lift Trucks
What steps should operato
follow when changing
Procedure for changing propane (LPG) cylinders:
1. Wear eye protection and insulated, loose fitting gloves such as leather (dry) or insulated neoprene.
2. Close the valve on the cylinder.
3. Run the engine until it stops. This ensures that the connection hose is empty.
4. Shut off the engine.
5. Open the connecting nut and inspect valves for leaking. Do NOT use metal tools.
6. Disconnect the hose.
7. Disconnect the holding straps.
8. Remove the empty cylinder.
9. Replace with a full cylinder in the proper position.
10. Connect the holding straps.
11. Tighten the connecting nut (wiggle hose).
12. Open the valve on the cylinder slowly and check for leaks. Use solution of soap and water. Smell – listen – look.
13. If the valve leaks:
1st time - Tighten the nut and continue.
2nd time - Change the cylinder.
3rd time - Change the hose.
14. Open the valve fully (slowly).
15. Check that the hose is turned inward.
16. Secure the hose downward.
re the cy
t the engine
and resume operation.
What should an operator not do when changing a propane tank (cylinder)?
• Do not use metal tools when changing a cylinder.
• Do not use excessive force when opening valve.
• Do not let the cylinder get too hot.
• Do not drag, drop, roll or slide cylinder or allow it to bang against other objects.
• Do not use matches or a flame to check for leaks. Use soap or a leak detector.
• Do not mount more than two LPG cylinders on any forklift truck.
Battery charging installations shall be located in areas designated for that purpose.
Facilities shall be provided for flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte, for fire protection, for protecting charging apparatus from damage by forklifts, and for adequate ventilation for dispersal of fumes from gassing batteries.
A conveyor, overhead hoist, or equivalent material handling equipment shall be provided for handling batteries.
Reinstalled batteries shall be properly positioned and secured in the forklift.
• A carboy tilter or siphon shall be provided for handling electrolyte.
• When charging batteries, acid shall be poured into water; water shall not be poured into acid.
Forklifts shall be properly positioned and brake applied before attempting to change or charge batteries.
Care shall be taken to assure that vent caps are functioning. The battery (or compartment) cover(s) shall be open to dissipate heat.
Smoking shall be prohibited in charging and refueling areas and "No Smoking" signs posted in these areas.
Precautions shall be taken to prevent open flames, sparks, or electric arcs in battery charging areas.
Refueling or Recharging Operations
What are the hazards associated with operating powered industrial trucks?
There are many types of powered industrial trucks. Each type presents different operating hazards. For example, a sit-down, counterbalanced high-lift rider truck is more likely than a motorized hand truck to be involved in a falling load accident because the sit-down rider truck can lift a load much higher than a hand truck. Workplace type and conditions are also factors in hazards commonly associated with powered industrial trucks. For example, retail establishments often face greater challenges than other worksites in maintaining pedestrian safety. Beyond that, many workers can also be injured when (1) lift trucks are inadvertently driven off loading docks; (2) lifts fall between docks and an unsecured trailer; (3) they are struck by a lift truck; or (4) they fall while on elevated pallets and tines.
What can be done to reduce the hazards related to powered industrial trucks?
Determining the best way to protect workers from injury largely depends on the type of truck operated and the worksite where it is being used. Employers must ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of the training and evaluation specified in 29 CFR 1910.178(l)(1).
If your truck starts to tip over, DON'T JUMP!
1. Stay in your seat, and go with the truck.
2. Grip the wheel securely.
3. Brace yourself with your feet.
Operating your lift truck safely means you are not only responsible for your safety, but also for the safety of the people around you.
Always look out for others before moving your lift truck.
As you drive, watch out for people walking, and at intersections, slow down, look for traffic, and sound your horn frequently. Remember, ALWAYS come to a complete stop before changing direction.
Keep in mind that you are a lift truck operator, not a taxi service. You should never allow anyone to ride on your lift truck.
You also do not operate an elevator service. Never attempt to lift anyone on your forks, without using a special basket designed for lifting people safely.
Remember, it's your lift truck. Never let unauthorized personnel use it, and always remove the key when you have to leave your lift truck unattended.
Seat Belt - Most lift trucks are equipped with a seat belt. Use it!
Horn - Sound your horn:
* Before backing up
* At intersections
* When traveling through doors
* Anywhere your vision is limited or blocked
The most important safety device that is on your lift truck is YOU!
* Stay alert, watch out for others, as well as yourself.
* Monitor the condition of your truck and the area you are working in.
* Wear safety equipment when needed.
* Watch for NO SMOKING areas.
* Never use drugs or alcohol before coming to work or on the job.
* Be careful of over-the-counter or prescription drugs that may impair your ability to operate your lift truck safely.
* Remember that SAFETY is the most important part of your job when operating a lift truck.
Electra Cord Specific Truck and Workplace Training
- Remember to use common sense
- Never transport people on any part of the truck.
- Wear the seat belt
- Use the operating manual for specific information
- Keep both feet on the floor board
- Keep all body parts inside the vehicle at all times
- Never put your hand on the back bar when backing up, this could squish your hands if the forklift were to tip over
- If the truck tips over DO NOT JUMP OFF
-Be cautious of the other employees.
-Make sure that you are using the safety tips we discussed in this presentation.
Overall Lowered Height
Free Fork Height
Overall Raised Height
Maximum Fork Height