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Properties of the Hair and Scalp

Chapter 11

Jennifer De Soto-Fitzgerald

on 12 October 2018

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Transcript of Properties of the Hair and Scalp

Properties of the Hair and Scalp
Use clarifying shampoos.
Eat a well-balanced diet.
Shampoo regularly and frequently.
Avoid strong soaps, detergents, or products with high alcohol content.

Oily Hair and Scalp

Hair appears dull, dry, lifeless.
Avoid frequent shampooing, strong soaps, detergents, or products with a high alcohol content.

Dry Hair and Scalp

Hair stream (hair flowing in same direction)
Whorl (hair forms in a circular pattern)
Cowlick (tuft of hair that stands straight up)

Growth Patterns

Testing for Porosity

Low – thin hair
Medium – average thickness
High – dense or thick hair

Average: 2,200 hairs per square inch
Blond: 140,000
Brown: 110,000
Black: 108,000
Red: 80,000

Hair Density

Testing Hair Texture

Tinea capitis
Tinea favosa

Fungal Parasites

Pityriasis capitis simplex
Pityriasis steatoides

Scalp Disorders

Minoxidil (topical treatment)
Finasteride (oral treatment)

Hair Loss Treatments

Temporary hair loss at conclusion of pregnancy
Growth cycle returns to normal within one year after delivery of baby.

Postpartum Alopecia

Sudden loss in round or irregular patches.
Affects five million people in the United States
Immune system attacks hair follicles
Begins with small bald patches
Occurs in males and females of all ages and races
No sign of scalp inflammation
No obvious signs of skin disorder

Alopecia Areata


Negative social and emotional effects; preoccupation with baldness; effort made to conceal

Devastation; anxiety; feelings of helplessness and unattractiveness

Emotional Impact of Severe Hair Loss

Less attractive
Less assertive
Less successful
Less personally likeable
Older by five years

Hair Loss Perceptions

Natural shedding: 35 to 40 hairs per day
Abnormal loss called alopecia.
Androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, postpartum alopecia

Hair Loss

Clipping, cutting makes hair grow faster.

Scalp massage increases growth.

Gray hair is coarser and more resistant.

Natural curl determined by race.

Sleeping with wet hair causes scalp fungus.

Hair grows faster on different parts of the head.

Wearing tight Braids, Pony tails or Buns Causes Baldness.
Hair Growth Myths

Melanin (tiny grains of pigment)
Eumelanin (provides brown/black color)
Pheomelanin (provides yellow to red/ginger color)

Gray hair (absence of melanin)

Hair Pigment

Bonds of the Hair

Keratinization: cell maturation
90 percent protein: amino acids composed of five elements

Chemical Composition of Hair

Healthy Hair

Trichology: the scientific study of hair, its diseases, and its care
Integumentry: system includes hair, skin, nails
Hair: slender, threadlike protein filament that is an appendage of the scalp and body
–Hair root: lies beneath the scalp
–Hair shaft: projects above the scalp

Chapter 11

Properties of the
Hair and Scalp

What four factors should be considered in hair analysis?

Name and describe the three layers of the hair

Normal elasticity
Low elasticity
Testing for elasticity


Low porosity =resistant
Average porosity=normal
High porosity=damaged

Porosity- The ability of the hair to absorb moisture.


Hair Analysis and Texture

Furuncle or boil - Bacteria infection

Carbuncle -inflammation of the subcutaneous
tissue that is caused by staphylococci.

Staphylococci Infections

Scabies (itch mite)
Pediculosis capitis (head lice)

Parasitic Infections

Trichorrhexis nodosa


Hair Disorders

Trichorrhexis nodosa-
Monilethrix Beeded- hair that breaks between the nodes
Fragilitas crinium-Hair that splits any where on the strand

Congenital canities
Acquired canities

Hypertrichosis-too much!!
hirsuties (hur-SOO-shee-eez)


Hair Disorders

Anagen (growing phase) 90% 2-6 years
Catagen (transition phase)14days
Telogen (resting phase)10%

The entire growth cycle repeats
itself every four to five years
Growth Cycles of Hair

Straight hair
Wavy hair
Extremely curly hair
Asian hair
Caucasian hair
African-American hair

Wave Patterns

Linked like pop beads
Peptide or end bonds
Polypeptide chain

Units of structure that build
Amino Acids



Hair Folical
Hair bulb
Dermal papilla
Hair Root
Sebaceous glands
Arrector pili Muscle
Structure of Hair Root

Objectives (continued)

Describe the hair growth process.

Discuss the types of hair loss and their causes.

Describe the options for hair loss treatment.

Recognize hair and scalp disorders commonly seen in the salon and school and know which can be treated by cosmetologists.

Name and describe the structures of the hair root.

List and describe the three layers of the hair shaft.

Describe the three types of side bonds in the cortex.

List the factors that should be considered in a hair analysis.

Perform a Hair Analysis on a student


Progressive shrinking or miniaturization of terminal hair
Affects millions of men and women in the United States

Androgenetic Alopecia

Vellus (lanugo) hair: short, fine, downy, unpigmented hair on body. Women have more than men.
Helps with the evaporation of perspriration.

Terminal hair: long, thick, pigmented hair found on scalp, legs, arms, and body. Courser then Vellus

Two Types of Hair

auto immune
terminal hair turning into Vellus
genetics, age or hormonal imbalance
Temporary - Pregnancy
alopecia totalis

alopecia unversalis
brittle and swelling
Thickness and Diameter of each hair strand
The average head contains

100,000 hairs
Low porosity Higher

High porosity Lower
require a more alkaline solution and raise the cutical

require a less alkaline solution (cuticle is already raised)
Proper nutrients required.
Hair made up of 20 amino acids. Body produces 11 of the 20.
Proteins are sources of amino acids and their side bonds.

Chapter 11

Name and describe the five main structures of the hair root.
one million hairs per square inch...WOW
Name and describe the two types of hair and their locations on the body.

What are the three phases of the hair growth cycle and what occurs during each?

what are the three phases of the growth cycle
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