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Spanish South American Independence
Transcript of Spanish South American Independence
Simón Bolívar - most important military leader for the independence of Venezuela
- studied works of the Enlightenment
- attracted many allies and build coalitions (slaves and freemen, gained supplies from Haiti)
- punished those who did not oppose the tyranny
José de San Martín - military commander
- crossed Andes Mts to attack Spanish forces in Chile and Peru
- allied with former slaves who gained freedom from enlisting in the army respresentative democracy made up of pro-slavery landowners (junta of creoles)
opposition to citizenship of blacks and mixed-races
Much discontent was rooted in the Social, Racial, and Political system that had emerged during 300 years of Spanish rule.
The Spread of much of the Enlightenment from Europe into South America
American and French revolution inspired many South Americans to revolt 1810 - Republic formed, overthrew viceroy
1811 - Juntas led by creoles declared independence in Venezuela
1816 - Juntas declared independence in Argentina
1824 - defeated last of Spanish armies and gained independence -Creation of the Junta Central, who believed in ruling Spanish colonies
-Uprisings started by Spanish loyalists (1808/1809)
-Simon Bolivar becomes leader for independence-Confederation of former colonies Unhappy with relationship between the Creoles and the Eurpoean Spaniards (Peninsulares)
War costs and Negative Stimulus Negative Power = Junta
Background - a group of creoles that wanted independence in Caracas
-leaders = landowners who defended slavery and opposed their rights as citizens
Reason - to expand their own priveleges - civil war between Radicals and those in favor of independence (union with Spain)
- Bolívar's Gran Colombia Republic - April 19, 1810
- broke from Napoleonic Spain and Spanish council pretending to rule under Ferdinand
Revolution movement placed in the hands of the military leader Simón Bolívar, becoming the preeminent leader.
José de San Martín crossing the Andes mountains to attack Chile and Peru, gained Chile but couldn't’t gain Peru, and surrendered. Liberating Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador resulted in Bolívar’s army to defeat the last Spanish armies in Peru and Bolivia, leading to the attempt a confederation.
In Buenos Aires news of the French victories led to the creation of a junta. Works Cited Minster, Christopher. "Independence from Spain 1806-1825."
About.com. About.com, 2013. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. Bolívar San Martín and IPG Minster, Christoper. "Venezuelan Independence from Spain: The First Republic, 1810-1812." About.com. About.com, 2013. Web. 2 Feb. 2013. Bulliet, Richard W., Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, and David Northrup. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. 5th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2011. Print. Argentine and Venezuelan Declaration of Independence documents Patriots in Buenos Aires retained control over territory of the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata, but Spanish loyalist defeated these ambitious.
Without the government unable to regain control, the region descended into political chaos.