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A Mission to Achieve Coherence and Cohesion

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by

Rawan AlBogamy

on 12 September 2015

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Transcript of A Mission to Achieve Coherence and Cohesion

Coherence
What does choherence mean?
Common mistakes:
1- Thinking that writing as many ideas as possible is the key to produce a good piece of writing.
Examples:
Reading English books is my favorite hobby for two reasons. First, it helps me improve my English. That is, when I read, I learn new English words and expressions. Second, it makes me learn about different cultures. For example, I can learn about the culture of the country which the story takes place in. In conclusion, I enjoy reading English books for these two reasons.
Cohesion
What does cohesion mean?
A Mission to Achieve Coherence and Cohesion
Coherence means the logical interconnection;
overall sense and understandability. That is, your
piece of writing should make sense in terms of
meaning and it should be connected logically.
How to achieve coherence?
1- You should achieve paragraph unity by focusing on one topic sentence that serves as a signpost to readers and writers.
2- All the ideas in your piece of writing should be purposeful,
logical, and related to your tpoic sentence.
3- Create an outline to help you in developing your piece of writing based on your topic sentence.
4- Keep your readers in mind when judging the comprehensibility of your piece of writing. It may be understandable to you but not to your readers.
2- Underestimating the role of outlines in writing.
3- Making your writing not explicit enough for the reader.
4- Writing randomly without a topic sentence.
5- Digressing from the main idea of the essay
or paragraph.
Examples:
Reading English books is my favorite
hobby for two reasons. First, it helps me improve my English. That is, when I read, I learn new English words and expressions. But I don't like reading Spanish books. Second, it makes me learn about different cultures. For example, I can learn about the culture of the country which the story takes place in. In conclusion, I enjoy reading English books for these two reasons.
Exercises:
Decide whether these short paragraphs are coherent or non-coherent, explain why they are cohrent or non-coherent, and make them coherent if they're non-coherent:
I love watching Indian movies, but sometimes I'd rather go out with my friends. I think my friends are funny and loyal. I also love the city I live in.
It is important to do your homework for two reasons. First, doing your homework will help you make sure that you understand what you've learned. Second, it will make studying for exams easier. Therefore, I find it really vital to do your homework.
Cohesion means uniting or sticking together. That is, the sentences and clauses in your piece of writing should be syntactically and semantically connected by using certain devices.
How to Achieve Cohesion?
Punctuation Marks

Conjunctions

Reference

Ellipsis

Substitution

Parallelism

Lexical Associations
Types of Conjunctions
1- Coordinating Conjuctions:
2- Subordinating Conjunctions:
3- Correlative Conjunctions:
4- Conjunctive Adverbs:
Done by:
Rawan Al-Bogamy

Nouf Al-Khalifi

Afnan Al-Khathlan
(FANBOYS)
F
or: to explain a reason or a purpose.
A
nd: to add one thing to another.
N
or: to present an alternative negative idea to an already stated negative idea.
B
ut: to show contrast.
O
r: to present an alternative or a choice.
Y
et: to present a contrasting idea that follows the previous idea logically.
S
o: to show an effect, a result, or a consequence.
after
although
as
as if
as long as
as much as
as soon as
because
before
even if

even though
how
if
now that
once
rather than
since
so that
than
that
though


unless
until
when
whenever
where
whereas
wherever
whether
while
why
Either ... or

Neither ... nor

Not only ... but also

Both ... and

Whether ... or


in addition
additionally
also
moreover
furthermore
besides
too
as well
and
similarly
likewise
just like
in the same way
but
whereas
however
in contrast
while
on the other hand
though
although
conversely
nevertheless
nonetheless
in spite of
despite
yet
because (of)
since
for
as
due to
as a result
as a consequence
consequently
hence
thus
therefore
so
if
only if
even if
unless
Punctuation Marks
The full stop/period (.):
at the end of the sentence or with abbreviations.
The comma (,):
for separating items in a list, separating adjectives, between closely related sentences, after dependent clauses, ... etc.
The exclamation mark (!):
indicating strong feelings, instructions, ... etc.
The question mark (?):
for asking questions.
The semi-colon (;):
joining two connected sentences, detailed lists.
The colon (:):
listing, a heading or a title.
The apostrophe ('):
possession, omitted letters.
The quotation marks ("..."):
quoting.


Common Mistakes:
Exercises:
Sources:
1- Using a conjunction after every single sentence.
2- Using conjunctions randomly without knowing what they mean or how they should be used.
3- Not knowing the chnages that should be made to sentences in terms of punctuation marks or grammar after adding certain conjunctions to them. For example, adding a comma after a sentence that starts with a subordinating conjunction, or changing a verb into a noun after "because of"
4- Not understanding how to use punctuation marks properly.
5- overusing or underusing punctuation marks or conjunctions.
- I had a fight with my sister yesterday
She told me, Get out of my room

- It rained heavily last week.
... ,
I couldn't go to school.

- I'd like to drink
...
coffee
...
tea.

- I like cats.
... ,
my sister likes dogs.

- If I go to her party I will have fun.

- I don't like history
...
geography.
Add the appropriate punctuation marks and conjunctions to the following sentences:
www.skillsyouneed.com
www.ccc.commnet.edu
www.eslcafe.com
www.grammar.ccc.commnet.edu
www.bothell.washington.edu
www.wheaton.edu
www.getitwriteonline.com
www.grammar.about.com
www.papyr.com
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