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Human Body's Bones
Transcript of Human Body's Bones
-Made up of several bones.
-Provides protection for the brain and organs of vision, taste, hearing, equilibrium, and smell.
-Equilibrium- "1: a state of balance between opposing forces or actions that is either static (as in a body acted on by forces whose resultant is zero) or dynamic (as in a reversible chemical reaction when the velocities in both directions are equal) 2: a state of intellectual or emotional balance" (Merriam Webster)
-Also provides attachment for muscles that move the head and control facial expressions and chewing.
-Sutures are immovable interlocking joints that join skull bones together. Femur
and longest bone in
-Only bone in the
-It's length is 26% of
a person's height.
-The long straight
part is called the
- It consists of 4 parts:
the head, the greater trochanter,
lesser trochanter, lower extremity.
-Trochanter-"a rough prominence or process at the upper part of the femur of many vertebrates serving usually for the attachment of muscles and being usually two on each femur in mammals including humans." (Merriam Webster) Fibula (calf bone)
-Thinner than the Shin bone.
-It forms part of the ankle.
-It doesn't give much support or strength to the leg.
-It is the most skinny of all the long bones. Patella (Knee cap)
-It protects the knee joint and it allows for increased knee movement and extension.
-It is the largest sesamoid in the body.
-Sesamoid bone- bone that is embedded with a tendon.
-There are two parts: Anterior and
-Anterior-The upper third is coarse, flattened, and rough; it serves for the attachment of the tendon of the quadriceps and often has exostoses.
The middle third has numerous vascular canaliculi.
The lower third includes the distal apex which serves as the origin of the patellar ligament.
-Exostosis- formation of new bone on the surface of a bone.
-Quadriceps- a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh.
- Vascular Canaliculi- Microscopic Canals in the blood vessels.
-Distal Apex-It is a part of the patella that creates the triangular shape to the bone. It forms the attachment for the patellar ligament.
-Patellar Ligament- "The part of the tendon of the quadriceps that extends from the patella to the tibia." (Merriam Webster) Tibia (Shin Bone)
-It is larger and stronger than the Fibula.
-It connects the knee to the ankle bones.
-It is the second largest bone in the body to the Femur.
-It forms the tibiofemoral components of the knee joint (one of the two articulations in the knee)
-In males it is relatively vertical and in females it is more slanted to account for wider hips.
-Tibiofemoral-"Relating to or being the articulation occurring between the tibia and the femur." (Merriam Webster)
-Articulation-"The action or manner in which the parts come together at a joint."(Merriam Webster) Ribs
-They serve to
heart, lungs, and
other internal organs
of the thorax.
-Thorax- the part of
the body between
the neck and abdomen.
-We have 24 ribs (12
-The first 7 set of ribs are
known as "true ribs." They
are directly attached to the
sternum through the costal
-Sternum- cartilage that connects
-Costal Cartilage- "Any of the cartilages that connect the distal ends of the ribs with the sternum and by their elasticity permit movement of the chest in respiration."(Merriam Webster)
- Rib 1 is a short, flat, C shaped bone. It is harder to distinguish than the rest.
-Ribs 2-7 have a more traditional appearance.
-Ribs 8-12 are known as "false ribs."
-Three of them (8-10) share a common cartilaginous connection to the sternum.
-The 11th and 12th set of ribs are floating ribs or vertebral ribs. This means they are only attached to the vertebrae only. Some people are missing one of them or some have a third set. Humerus
-It runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
-It is the largest bone of the upper half
of the body.
-It is divided into a head and the upper
and lower extremity.
-"The upper extremity consists of a large rounded head joined to the body by a constricted portion called the neck, and two eminences, the greater and lesser tubercles." (Grey's Anatomy)
-Eminences-Areas that are bulged out.
-Tubercles-"A small knobby prominence." (Merriam Webster)
-The outside edge of the head's joint surface is called the anatomical neck.
-Anatomical-relating to anatomy Pelvis
-It is composed of two hip bones in the front and the sacrum and the coccyx in the back (4 bones).
-Before puberty, each hip bone
consists of 3 separate bones: ilium,
ischium, and pubis. It can contain up
to 10 bones.
-It connects the spine to the femurs.
-The Sacrum (upper-middle part of the pelvis) connects the spine to the
-"Its primary functions are to bear the weight of the upper body when sitting and standing; transfer that weight from the axial skeleton to the lower appendicular skeleton when standing and walking; and provide attachments for and withstand the forces of the powerful muscles of locomotion and posture." (Wikipedia)
-Appendicular-Of or relating to limbs.
-Axial Skeleton-The upper part of your body -"Diameters of superior aperture of lesser pelvis (female)."
-Aperture-An open space
-Lesser Pelvis-"The cavity of the pelvis below the brim or superior aperture." (Stedman's Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing) Radius
-It contributes to the
-The upper extremity
contains a head, neck,
-"The head is of a cylindrical form, and on its upper surface is a shallow cup or fovea for articulation with the capitulum of the humerus." (Grey's Anatomy)
-"The head is supported on a round, smooth, and constricted portion called the neck." (Grey's Anatomy)
-"Beneath the neck, on the medial side, is an eminence, the radial tuberosity; its surface is divided into a posterior, rough portion, for the insertion of the tendon of the Biceps brachii, and an anterior, smooth portion, on which a bursa is interposed between the tendon and the bone." (Grey's Anatomy)
-Tuberosity-"A rounded prominence."(Merriam Webster)
-Fovea-A small groove.
-Capitulum-"A rounded protuberance of an anatomical part." (Merriam Webster)
-Bursa-"A bodily pouch or sack." (Merriam Webster) Ulna
-The Ulna is the longer of the two (Ulna and Radius) and it is the inner bone.
-"...The ulna is a major contributor to the elbow joint..." (Wikipedia)
-The upper extremity is of great strength and thickness.
-The lower extremity is very small and away from the wrist joint due to cartilage in between the the Ulna and the wrist joint. Cervical Vertebrae
-The cervical vertebrae are the ones that are right below the skull.
-They are the smallest of the vertebrae that is not connected and are always free (true vertebrae).
-They are labeled C1 through C7 with C1 being the closest to the skull.
-C3 through C6 is broader from side to side than from front to back. They are also small.
-C1 (Atlas) forms the joint connecting the spine and brain with C2. C1 has no body because it has fused with the next vertebrae, C2.
-C2 (Axis) is the pivot point for C1. Its body is deeper in front than behind and it overlaps the top and front part of the third vertebrae (C3).
-C7 ( Vertebra Prominens) "...is associated with an abnormal pair of ribs, known as cervical ribs. These ribs are usually small, but may occasionally compress blood vessels (such as the subclavian artery) or nerves in the brachial plexus, causing ischemic muscle pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the upper limb."(Wikipedia)
-Ischemic- A low amount of blood "...to a body part (as the heart or brain) that is due to obstruction of the inflow of arterial blood. " (Merriam Webster)
-Vertebra Prominens-"The seventh cervical vertebra characterized by a prominent spinous process which can be felt at the base of the neck."(Merriam Webster)
-Brachial Plexus-A complicated network of nerves.
-Spinous Process-" The median spine-like or plate-like dorsal process of the neural arch of a vertebra." (Merriam Webster)
-Neural-Bony arch enclosing the spinal cord or a vertebrae.
Cervical Vertebrae Scapula (Shoulder Blade)
-The Scapula connects the humerus
to the clavicle, which is the collar bone.
-"At the upper part of the fossa is a transverse depression, where the bone appears to be bent on itself along a line at right angles to and passing through the center of the glenoid cavity, forming a considerable angle, called the subscapular angle; this gives greater strength to the body of the bone by its arched form, while the summit of the arch serves to support the spine and acromion." (Wikipedia)
-Glenoid Cavity-"The shallow cavity of the upper part of the scapula by which the humerus articulates with the pectoral girdle." (Merriam Webster)
-Pectoral Girdle-"The set of bones which connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton on each side." (Wikipedia)
-Acromion- "The outer end of the spine of the scapula that protects the glenoid cavity, forms the outer angle of the shoulder, and articulates with the clavicle." (Merriam Webster) Femur
l Thoracic Vertebrae (Dorsal Vertebrae)
-It makes up the middle part of the spine (vertebrae column).
-Each vertebrae increases in size as you go down.
-They are labeled T1 through T12.
-T2 through T8 are regular and T1 and T9 through T12 are different from the others.
-T1 through T8 are heart shaped.
-"The segments of the vertebral column, usually 12, which articulate with ribs to form part of the thoracic cage." (Stedman's Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing)
-They may rotate some, but the rib cage prevents most movement.
-"The term thoracolumbar is sometimes used to refer to the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae together, and sometimes also their surrounding areas." (Wikipedia)
-T1-It is broad, concave, and lipped on either side.
"The first thoracic vertebra has, on either side of the body, an entire articular facet for the head of the first rib, and a demi-facet for the upper half of the head of the second rib.
The superior articular surfaces are directed upward and backward; the spinous process is thick, long, and almost horizontal.
The transverse processes are long, and the upper vertebral notches are deeper than those of the other thoracic vertebrae." (Wikipedia)
-Facet- "A smooth flat or nearly flat circumscribed anatomical surface." (Merriam Webster)
-T2-It is larger than T1.
-T4-It and T5 is at the level as the sternal angle.
-Sternal Angle-"The angle formed by the joining of the manubrium to the gladiolus of the sternum." (Merriam Webster)
-Manubrium-"An anatomical process or part shaped like a handle." (Merriam Webster)
-T5-"The human trachea divides into two main bronchi at the level of the 5th thoracic vertebra, but may also end higher or lower, depending on breathing." (Wikipedia)
-T8- It and T9 are on the same level as the xiphoid process..
-T9- It may have two demi-facets on either side.
-T10-It has an entire articular facet on either side.
-T11- Its facets are large for the heads of the ribs.
-T12-It has "...inferior articular surfaces being convex and directed lateralward, like those of the lumbar vertebrae..." (Wikipedia) Lumbar Vertebrae
-"The vertebrae, usually five in number, located in the lumbar region of the back." (Stedman's Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing)
-It is the "Largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column." (theodora.com)
-They are thicker in the front than in the back.
-The body is large.
-They are labeled L1-L5.
-They have to support more weight than the others.
-They are between the rib cage and the pelvis.
-"The lumbar vertebrae help support the weight of the body, and permit movement." (Wikipedia)
-"Each lumbar vertebra consists of a vertebral body and a vertebral arch. The vertebral arch, consisting of a pair of pedicles and a pair of laminae, encloses the vertebral foramen (opening) and supports seven processes." (Wikipedia)
-Pedicles-"A basal attachment." (Merriam Webster)
-Laminae-"A thin plate or layer especially of an anatomical part." (Merriam Webster)
-"Most individuals have five lumbar vertebrae, while some have four or six." (Wikipedia)
-"The fifth lumbar vertebrae is characterized by its body being much deeper in front than behind..." (Wikipedia)
-"The first lumbar vertebrae is level with the anterior end of the ninth rib. This level is also called the important transpyloric plane..." (Wikipedia) Lumbar Vertebrae Thoracic Vertebrae
l The End! Thanks
For watching! Bibliography
-Stedman's Medical Dictionary
-Grey's Anatomy (theodora.com)