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Ch 10 - The Jefferson Era

1- Jeffersonian Democracy, 2- The Louisiana Purchase & Exploration, 3- The War of 1812
by

Mr. Command

on 14 December 2015

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Transcript of Ch 10 - The Jefferson Era

Chapter 10: The Jefferson Era
Section 1: Jefferson Takes Office
Election of 1800
-Democratic Republicans were led by Thomas Jefferson

- Democratic Republicans thought they saved the nation from monarchy and oppression

-said Alien and Sedition act supported by federalists violated the Bill of Rights
-Federalists were led by President John Adams

-they thought the nation was going to be ruined by radicals

*radicals=People who take extreme political positions
-
Jefferson
vs.
Adams
(also vs.)
Burr
-DR won presidency on election day
*DR wanted Burr as Vice President but he also got 73 votes for President
VS.
73 VOTES
65 VOTES
Breaking the Tie
-House of Representatives had to choose between Burr and Jefferson

-Federalists still held majority in the house

-house voted 35 times ending in ties

-on the 36th time Jefferson won and became president and Burr became the vice president
The Talented Jefferson

**Do Not Write**
-designed some buildings in Washington D.C., he also designed his home in Virginia

- he was a skilled violinist, horseman, amateur scientist, and devoted reader

Jefferson's Philosophy
-wanted small independent farms

-thought more available land would prevent from crowding cities

-limited central government

-people should govern themselves
Undoing Federalist's Programs

-Congress allowed Alien & Sedition Acts to end
-released prisoners convicted under the acts

-Congress ended many taxes including the whiskey tax

-Jefferson reduced the number of federal & military employees to cut costs

-Alexander Hamilton thought debt was a good thing
-Jefferson opposed debt
-Used revenues from tariffs & land sales to lower debt
Marshall and the Judiciary

-Adams appointed as many federalist judges as he could after losing the election
*called "Midnight Judges"

-He appointed a new Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
*Choose federalist John Marshall

-Supreme courts upheld federal authority (judicial review) and strengthened federal courts under Marshall


Marbury v. Madison

-Adams had named William Marbury Justice of the Peace

-Marbury was supposed to be installed in his position by Secretary of State James Madison

-When Madison refused to give him the job, Marbury sued
*went to Supreme court and ruled that the law under which Marbury sued was unconstitutional

-First time the Supreme court overruled a law passed by Congress

-by
establishing Judicial Review
Marshall helped to create a lasting balance among the 3 branches of government
Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase and Exploration
Jefferson purchased Louisiana Territory in 1803 and doubled the size of the United States. Thirteen more states were eventually organized on the land acquired by the Louisiana Purchase.
The West in 1800
- settlers were moving on Native American Lands

- several territories soon declared statehood
(Kentucky & Tennessee by 1800; Ohio in 1803)

- 1800, France & Spain were negotiating ownership of the
Louisiana Territory

**land between
Mississippi River
and
Rocky Mountains

Section 3: Problems with Foreign Powers
Jefferson's Foreign Policy
-Jefferson wanted all nations to be happy
**Did not work

Two Reasons Why:

1.) American merchants trading all over the world

2.) Louisiana Purchase + Lewis and Clark expedition = open country westward

-Expansion brings Americans closer with people who had already settled west
Problems with France and England
France & British ordered U.S. to stop shipping to the other country

-If Americans listened to one, the other would capture our ships

-1803-1812 British impressed 6,000 Americans to work on British ships

-
Trade as a Weapon
-Jefferson wanted to pass legislation to stop all foreign trade
*peaceable coercion
*prevent further bloodshed

-December congress passed the Embargo act of 1807

-ships no longer to sail to foreign places

-policy was a disaster

-more harmful to us than to Britain or France
Tecumseh and Native American Unity
- British interference made U.S. citizens mad
*shipping, impressment, and stopping American expansion

-since the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 Native Americans started losing land

-Tecumseh was the Shawnee chief
*he vowed to stop loss of land

-thought that they were losing land because they had not united
1809 events proved that theory right

William Henry Harrison (gov of Indiana ter.) signed treaty of Fort Wayne
-Native Americans agreed to sell over 3 million acres
-Tecumseh declared it void

-In Nov 1811, while Tecumseh was away, Harrison's forces at Battle of Tippecanoe defeated the Shawnee

The War of 1812
-British and Natives became allies
*War supporters called "War Hawks"

-President James Madison declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812
1st Phase of the War
Triumph on Lake Erie
-early ships:
Constitution
&
United States
won victories

-Sept. 1813 = small British force on Lake Erie set out to attack Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry and his fleet of U.S. ships

-Perry’s ship destroyed
*went into a rowboat
*rowed to another ship & commanded it
*made British surrender

-General Harrison then went to attack the British
*took his army to Detroit & Britain retreated to Canada

-Harrison then beat British in the Battle of the Thames in October
*Killing Tecumseh
The Second Phase of War
Sept. 1814= the plan failed when the American fleet defeated the British in the Battle of Lake Champlain
-in the south, British moved against the strategic port of New Orleans
-Dec. 1814=dozens of ships carrying 7,500 British troops approached Louisiana
-to fight, Americans patched together an army under the command of General Andrew Jackson
-Jan. 8, 1815=British attacked Jackson’s forces
-American riflemen mowed down the advanced redcoats
*great victory for Jackson
-American casualties= 71/Britains=2,000
-slow mail delayed news of Treaty of Ghent (end of war)
-Dec. 24 1814=it was signed
The Legacy of War
-the treaty didn’t show a winner, territory changed hands or trade disputes
-US proved to stand up for themselves

Effects of the War
WAR
Increased
American
Patriotism

Weakened
Native
American
Resistance

US
Manufacturing
Grew

The Louisiana Purchase
In 1802, Spain gave New Orleans to the French.
*Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans from the French
*The French returned with an offer for the U.S. to buy the Louisiana Purchase

- Constitution said nothing about president’s right to buy land

- Jefferson believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution

-also believed in a republic of small farmers that need the land

- April 30, 1803 Louisiana purchase approved for $15 million (3 cents an acre)

- doubled the size of the US
Lewis and Clark Explore
- 1802=Jefferson made plans to explore the Louisiana Country

- Jefferson chose Captain Meriwether Lewis to lead expedition

- Lewis turned to his friend Lieutenant William Clark to select and oversee a volunteer force called
corps


- Clark came with York, his African-American Slave

- set out summer 1803 - by winter they reached St. Louis
Up the Missouri River
- about 40 explorers left May of 1804 to explore rivers

- also to make friends w/ Natives & describe landscape/plants/animals

- met British & French-Canadian traders & trappers (NOT happy to see Americans)

- spring 1805=expedition set out with a French trapper, Sacagawea and their baby

- Sacagawea - Shoshone woman who had language and geography skills essential to Lewis and Clark’s expedition
On to the Pacific Ocean
- expedition stopped at Great Falls of Missouri
- carried boats & supplies 18 miles to get around

- built wheels to move boats, but still took them two weeks (rattlesnakes, bears & hail storm slowed them)

- neared Rockies & Sacagawea pointed out Shoshone lands

- chief recognized Sacagawea as his sister; traded horses with them; led them across mountains

Pike’s Expedition
- 1806=expedition led by Zebulon Pike left St. Louis headed south (Lewis & Clark explored north)

- went to find source of Arkansas and Red Rivers (Red river = boundary of Spanish land and Louisiana Territory)

- found and followed Arkansas river toward Rocky Mountains

- turned south hoping to find Red River, instead found Rio Grande, in Spanish Territory

- arrested there and returned to US in 1807
The Effects of Exploration

- first Americans brought back tales of adventure, scientific and geographic information

-information would have long-lasting effects

-Napoleon had 3 main reasons to make his offer

1) alarmed that America wanted to keep New Orleans open

2) revolt in the French Colony of Haiti in the West Indies

3) France’s costly war against Britain (needed $, not land)
- British was at war with France
~Spent little time with America
~Sent ship blockades

-American military was weak
~TJ limited the size
~Navy had only 16 warships
~Army had less than 7,000 men
-Started in 1814 when the British defeated Napoleon
-Now Britain could focus on U.S.

-In August 1814, the British burned the White House

-Next attack was Fort McHenry at Baltimore
-Francis Scott Key wrote the national anthem
-"The Star-Spangled Banner"

-In the north, U.S. fleet won the Battle of Lake Champlain

Battle of New Orleans
-In the south, British moved on New Orleans

-Andrew Jackson led the U.S. troops
-Won with riflemen protected by "earth"
-Great U.S. Victory!
-Casualties= 71 U.S., 2000 British

-Treaty of Ghent ended the war weeks earlier
-Slow mail travel kept the fighting going
Oh Canada...
Full transcript