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Ch. 8 / Lesson 1 -- WWII
Transcript of Ch. 8 / Lesson 1 -- WWII
Britain and France (Allied Powers) promised to protect Poland.
They warned Hitler that if he attacked Poland, it would mean war with the Allies.
September 1, 1939: German troops rushed into Poland. Britain and France declared war on Germany.
The Allied Powers When the US entered WWII they did not have enough men to fight in battles around the world. The draft was the solution to this problem. Before the war was over more than 10 million men were drafted into the military. 1936: Hitler and Mussolini signed a treaty agreeing to support each other. Japan later joined this alliance. Germany, Italy, and Japan became known as the Axis.
In the mid-1930s Germany, Italy and Japan went on the attack. Germany took control of Austria and Czechoslovakia. Italy invaded the African nation of Ethiopia. Japan invaded China.
The Axis Powers Most of the World had been stuck in economic depression for years. People lost confidence in their governments. They turned to new leaders who promised to make trouble disappear even if this meant sacrificing their own freedom.
This led to the rise of dictators in several countries. A dictator is a leader who gains complete control of a country's government Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler became the dictator of Germany in 1933. Hitler and his political party (Nazi party) believed in fascism. Fascism is a form of government in which individual freedoms are denied and complete power is given to the government.
He believed Germans were superior to other people. He had hatred towards many groups, particularly Jewish people. Benito Mussolini Took power in Italy in the early 1920s.
Like Hitler, he promised to attack and conquer other countries. In Japan... Military leaders came into power. They planned to use military force to build a massive empire in East Asia. The Rise of Dictators The Debate at Home Americans read news of the war in their newspapers.
Winston Churchill was the leader of the British government. He urged President Roosevelt to help Great Britain.
Many Americans wanted to stay out of the fighting and focus on troubles at home.
Roosevelt helped Britain without actually fighting by letting Britain borrow military supplies.
This policy was known as Lend-Lease. The Draft German military was very successful in the early years of WWII.
They defeated the Polish Army, moved West and quickly conquered nearly all of Western Europe.
1940: France fell to Germany.
Britain stood alone in fight against Axis. Britain Stands Alone Declaring War: 1941: Japanese forces controlled much of China and Southeast Asia.
Leaders in US spoke out against Japanese expansion. (Caused tension between Japan and US.)
Hideki Tojo, military leader of Japan, believed the US was standing in the way of Japan's goals.
December 7, 1941: Japanese planes bombed the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
More than 2,300 American soldiers, sailors, and civilians were killed.
Americans reacted with fury. People who had been isolationists were suddenly calling for war against Japan.
At Roosevelt's request, the House of Representatives and Senate voted to declare war on Japan.
The United States was now one of the Allies. Axis Advances: The Soviet Union was ruled by dictator Joseph Stalin. Before WWII began, Stalin and Hitler made an agreement not to attack each other.
In 1941, Hitler broke his agreement with Stalin and German forces invaded the Soviet Union.
Stalin had no choice but to join the Allies.
Under the Lend-Lease program. the US sent the Soviet Union supplies; trucks, radios, boots and canned meat.