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Gender and identity in Argentina
Transcript of Gender and identity in Argentina
in Argentina Tango Gaucho Futbol men have traditionally been the breadwinners, women have been responsible for domestic duties the concept of machismo is deeply rooted in the culture of Argentina, here are the three ways we will look at this idea: much stronger in provincial and rural communities http://www.tierradegauchos.com/El%20gaucho/Pilchas/ 1) Chaleco: some gauchos wore a vest made of leather
2) Camisa: rustica and fabric was light, and wide sleeves.
3) Rastra : Los gauchos used it more elegant. It was an expensive item of silver.
4) Boleadoras : They were used as weapons to fight and to hunt animals throwing their legs (see Weapons )
5) Lazo : braided leather with a ring at one end. A widely used tool in the work of the gaucho
6) Chiripa : It was a very lightweight fabric that is passed between the legs, sujetndoselas with handles or with a band, like a pant.
7) Botas de Potro: Shoes made with raw hide of horses that had not yet been tamed. They were not as we know today, curled in the feet and calves .
8) Sombrero : Generally was leather and used it against the sun, rain and wind.
9) Panuelo : Los gauchos called him "serene" or "serenero". They used it under your hat for sun protection, mosquito and wind. Also to wipe the sweat.
10) Poncho : Manta woven, open in the center for the head. They used to wrap or rolled him in the arm and also served as their shield colorado The poncho was used by the federal Salta, commanding Guemes. The black lines are mourning his death.
11) Rebenque : Tool used by gauchos to master the horse.
12) Calzoncillo cribado: They were wide for easy movement. The so called because they had ornaments called "cribos"
13) Espuelas (spurs): They used to accelerate the pace of the horse. Some had iron and the other of silver. Taking the same as the title of a painting by Carlos Morel of 1839, we will describe the main weapons possessed by the gaucho, undisputed master of the plain only with their bolas, tie and Facon, could function in an environment of other of inhospitable and face the dangers, whether animal or Christian Indians. Much writing the knife in our literature, but to define it with big words, we dump it Domigo written by F. Sarmiento "Facundo." Knife plus a weapon is an instrument that serves for all occupations, can not live without, is like the trunk of an elephant, his arm, his hand, his finger, his everything. The types of knives used were various according to the needs, the best known being the following: FACON : Cold steel between knife and sword whose length varies between 30 and 80 cm. long, with long, straight blade as 4 cm. wide with and against edged blade. Hawk has called guardapuño, crossbar or S. At extremely long they were called "caroneros" because they are lleveba between caronas the message to be uncomfortable to carry in the waist. Generally these caroneros lacked S.
DAGGER : The dagger facon difference being thinner and quite short.
DAGGER : The gaucho knife call the triangular blade knife and without S, Facon much lower than if it was smaller and I call "Verijero" in clear reference to port it forward at the waist of contact with that area of the body.
At other times these weapons were widely used and there is no shortage of stories about the famous duels Creoles, hand in hand and without witnesses. Similarly facts were used by writers to idealize elements from the optical second one looks, can be heroes or common criminals. Housing Weapons Baleadoras: Weapons of war or hunting element or livestock work consisting of three strands of twisted rawhide, from 1.80 to 2 mts.cada capped one and three balls of stone, lead, or hardwood wrapped (retobadas) these last in rawhide.
Revoleadas on the head and thrown with force to the legs, body or neck hunted animal, whether horse, bull, guanaco, ostrich, deer or hare leon, the gaucho to run his horse manages to enrredarlos with them the arrest nearly instant of his flight. There are different sizes depending on their use being used for the ostrich (bolas avestruceras) very commonly only two balls, a fact which gives them greater scope, usually approximated by a power arm dropped to 50 mts. The potreadoras, used for mares, are much larger. In "Martin Fierro" are named and praised as a deadly weapon in the hands of the pampas, and was according to an Argentine writer, a rounder which swept national reconstruction years, when the soldier Federico Zeballo boleo him the horse to General Paz by uncle, 10 May 1831, making him prisoner. The gaucho lived alone on his land which bound him nothing more than the echo of being born into it. Freedom, in them, was their motto innate gentleman spirits as their heads or color to his pupils. The gaucho not understand or tolerate slavery. Abhorred the exploitation of man by man. He did not live in society because it drove the conquistador brutally, their domains, and the Indian desbarataba him in his peace plans. El gaucho lived alone. A home of another was far sometimes miles and miles away, silences and distresses. The area where the gaucho learned to work, suffer fun, called Pago.
The payment was part of a region with its own characteristics. It was a territorial division within a province that certain geographical features, or physical, influenced the imposition of a fad, custom or special distinction that gave countenance to their residents. Inside was the lair of payment, ie the house. The lair was a small circle that payment yet. It was located modern life where his heart lay. Gaucho Housing, generally, was not stable, Most times its fickleness in place depended on the state of the fields or the abundance of game. His ranch was easy to remove, since it was established more than sticks, reeds, straw and mud. Their moves were not extreme, but when its inhabitants had to move huge distances looking for work. The Gauchos went on campaign several friends and train suitably equipped for conducting any foals hunt ostriches or maroons. "Patron Saint of the" Molina Campos The place occupied as concentration point was called the Royal. There he rested for the tasks. If time came to join them, came to surveys or flyers transient awnings, made with one of the pilchas the message, the flanks. For the peasants, the flanks are a kind of poncho (with mouth or not), made from the skin of the belly and verijas of two animals, paws together and torn down the middle, ie free leather lining four members of each animal. Awnings flyers were constructed as follows: when it rains if they are between high straws, tie the tops of which are parallel, and each other, and with the long feathers of ostrich, stretching after the flank the fragile dome with hair up, So that no landfall, the best way to secure it. As bed using his saddle. The caronas he served mattress, the mattress of blankets or mattress also if the ambient temperature and body demanded that he slept for softness isat the single bed could offer. This was the gaucho flywheel housing. Which he used to go hunting or when not yet had a home http://www.tierradegauchos.com/joom/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=183:vivienda-del-gaucho-i&catid=38:el-gaucho&Itemid=78 malambo. This kind of tap dance is executed by men only and is based entirely on rhythm provided by drum beating. The malambo dancer’s feet barely touch the ground and all his moves are energetic and complex. DANCE http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/football/article-2133559/Genoa-match-stopped.html
http://deadspin.com/5904132/italian-soccer-match-delayed-when-fans-demand-players-hand-over-their-jerseys Italian Mafia V. The greatest dervy in the world -- the English newspaper The Observer put the Superclasico at the top of their list of 50 sporting things you must do before you die, above Barcelona-Real Madrid and Inter-Milan. The two clubs both have origins in the poor riverside area of Buenos Aires known as La Boca. River however moved to the more affluent district of Nunez in the north of the city in 1923. 68 wins 61 wins 55 ties Eduardo Archetti native ethnography ... emic or etic? What do we remember from our soccer game? songs insults Archetti examines the chants the rivals make towards each other in the soccer stadium stands -- particularly the use of remarks about sexuality and class hierarchy to insult others and assert status. The chants are very bawdy, very graphic attacks on opponents' sexuality (as homosexuals, as ‘receiving it’ from the winner teams), on age and on status position (e.g., "fathers" chant down to "sons"). When Argentina loses to England, crowds chant threats; they threaten to rape the queen. When Argentina wins over England, crowds chant, threatening to rape Maggie Thatcher called hijos nuestros (our sons) teaching and talking them to make them real men ... not homosexuals like the chants suggest MASCULINITIES. Football, Polo and the Tango in Argentina. 1999.
Berg. Oxford. NY. Research: 1988 - 1994 thesis ... To write on masculinities through football, the tango and polo in order to grasp the Argentinian identity...” In Britain, soccer and polo had meaning as training for masculinity and patriotism: In England “team sport was regarded as education in manliness.” xvii. That was exported to Argentina, and then changed in meaning to adapt to Argentine situation (cultural hybridization).
Polo: Body Sport also imported.
Tango: Body Sport created in Argentina! Unique. in turn defined women, as the opposite; mothers, chaste and disciplined “For the first time in my life as a football enthusiast I saw something that I could call ‘culture’ in the behaviour of the crowd and in the bodily performances of the players. During two hours in the stadium I experienced the collective flow of movements, ideas, concepts and emotions. I perceived differences and similarities, noises and smells, brutality and fair play, the past and the present, and I realized that I was comparing what I saw with other distant places and stadiums. My anthropological understanding at that very moment was the result of explicit and implicit cross-cultural comparison.” “…football, without a doubt, is the ‘national’ sport of Argentina. Football is an activity and a passion that cut across class, ethnic status or regional origin. Through football Argentina became an important actor in the modern world history of sports. Thus, football is a powerful masculine expression of national capabilities and potentialities. Argentinian football has constituted a symbolic and practical male arena for national pride and disappointments, happiness and sorrow. The nationalist discourses on sport, in addition to the discovery of the foundation of a ‘national style of playing’, can then be seen as an influential mechanism through which male cultural power is established. Then, was it only football?” “romantic male free rider and heroic figure of the Argentina of the wars of independence, at a time when he was in actuality losing his freedom and becoming a rural proletarian...” Polo POLO: Elites. Rural. Landed classes. Men and Horses.
FUTBOL: Urban. Popular. Men and Men.
TANGO: Middle Class. Urban. Men and Women. The wild life of the gauchos on the pampas was to be replaced by settled farmers, as was livestock by agriculture, extensive use of natural resources by private property, a closed economy by one integrated into the world market, and folk artistry by European theater, music and opera.” 32 Gaucho as symbol: represent cultural heritage of the nation.
See gaucho as full of pride (from spanish) and of independence
(from indians) Came from Britain “... the criollo has been divested of force and courage by making supreme virtues of the art of dribbling -- that is, a play that avoids physical contact with the opposition -- and cunning, the ability to hide one’s true intentions by turning life (the game) into a series of continual pretences, making the opponent believe the opposite of one’s true intentions, turning deceit into victory.” Argentinian Theme: individual over the collective Basically, polo is like soccer. What makes it Argentinian and successful... The fact that it’s got British Roots, but became “Argentinian” with gaucho background and machismo, with style of play, and players (criollo), and ponies (criollo). Hybridization defines it as global, as masculine...
Criollo is linked to land, is linked to agricultural/gaucho heritage.
Way of riding, way of dealing with the world. A morality. Fastest team sport in the world.
Depends on speed and dexterity of ponies (25-32 per team!), and players.
Very expensive sport.
Argentina’s gaucho culture seen as creating skills to make Argentina world dominant in Polo. 78
BAsed on play on potrero... uneven land. History: landowning culture, based on cattle. Estancias. Basis of Polo in Argentina, which was started by the English.
Early origins: Asian. Brits learned it in India in 1860s.
Started in the Army, Calvalry.
Polo : game for American Millionaires, Calvary offeres, elite. Gaucho games: really dangerous, daring, requiring strength and courage.
Polo: seen as civilized, refined. 85
plus... “through polo Argentinians could participate in a social world dmoinated by British and European aristorcrats and American millionaires.” Winning means: “male virtues of courage, physical strength, tactical rational planning and moral endurance.” Paternity, rather than filiality. The game, the way they play it, is called “la nuestra” ours.
Our way of playing is our way of being. “if you get the ball you must keep it; you must hide it; you must treat it with love; you must protect it; you must flatten it; you must not give it away beacuse if this happens you will never get it back. La nuestra is the cult of dribbling...”
“La nuestra is the product of two historical circumstances: the ideology of the potrero, and the development over time of a certain taste... + = No history ... why?? Not many women ... why?? "Nino bien" - good boys ... what's that mean? Tango and Hip Hop:
Carlos Gardel and Jay-Z
Gardel is a tango icon, had an amazing voice and a big smilePeople clung to his story because: he was a poor boy who succeeded (JayZ)
Raised by his mother and discusses it in his songs (JayZ)
Talks about the importance of friendship when living in a poor neighborhood (JayZ)
Complex...Gardel was a poor guy from the street but he was always seen wearing a tuxedo, became the icon of Tango.
JayZ: “I’m Che Guevara with bling on, I’m complex” Tango and Gender
The tension created by gender and power makes tango especially dramatic.
Male/Female gender roles aren’t as simple as they look and change during the 40s
Male leads, Female follows - but it is a constant response and molding of movements
Man may lead but the woman could make the man chase her or he may remain stationary and she can perform moves around him and “decorate him”
“El hombre propone ye la mujer dispone” (The man proposes and the woman decides)
the cabaceo = Trust ... woman is vulnerable, the man can lead and will ... plays into gender role Argentine History and Tango
Juan and Eva Peron being populist leaders used the Tango to gain support from the masses
In 1955, when the coup ousted them, the new military elite arrested and blacklisted artists and musicians to avoid them creating songs that made them look bad (military junta)
Established curfews and restrictions on meetings with no more than three people
Milongas (dance halls) close and Rock n Roll bars open
Generations of Argentinians miss out on Tango
1983 military junta falls
People wanted to move againto be free againresurgence in yoga, martial arts and tango in Argentina Argentina was going through major changes. With the arrival of millions of immigrants, the shape of the city and its society suffered an intense process of modernization. Tango traveled the world, changed while traveling, but like football, came out of Argentina and gave the world an image of Argentina.
Tango and Football: a mirror and mask.
Argentines see themselves, others see them. El Superclásico