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GWI East Africa: Five Years Later

End-of-Program Phase I Report, November 2012
by

CARE Water Team Water team

on 19 June 2014

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Transcript of GWI East Africa: Five Years Later

Growth... SO 1: Good Governance SO 2: Sustained Multiple Uses of Water GWI East Africa: 5 Years Later IR 2.1: Coverage of Basic Water and Sanitation Systems Increased and Hygiene Behavior Improved

IR 2.2: Water for Productive Use is more Effectively Harnessed and Ownership Increased

IR 2.3: Ability of Local Stakeholders to Manage, Maintain and Rehabilitate Water Systems and Watersheds End-of-Year Progress Report IR 1.1: Capacity of Local Stakeholders for Inclusive Decision Making

IR 1.2: Improved Legal and Policy Frameworks

IR 1.3: Creative Financing to Multiply Scale

IR 1.4: Community Capacity to Support/
Implement Enhanced by Gender Equity and Diversity SO 3: Risk Management Looking Forward Training on Nursery Establishment, Ethiopia CASE STUDY:
Ethiopia CASE STUDY: In the Dugda district of Ethiopia in particular, there has been an impressive array of natural resource management activities; the GWI formed members of existing community groups, or"iddirs", and School Environment Clubs into Natural Resource Management Committees that took on activities such as enclosures of protected areas, soil conservation activities and planting of
seedlings. November 2012 Overall Goal: To reduce vulnerability to water-related shocks and improve the quality of life of target populations through Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Ethiopia Phase One
2007-2012
3 Strategic Objectives (SOs):

SO 1: Good Governance
SO 2: Sustained Multiple Uses of Water
SO 3: Risk Management SO1: Good Governance IR 1.4: Community Capacity to Support/Implement Enhanced Gender Equity and Diversity IR 2.1: Coverage of Basic Water and Sanitation Systems Increased and Hygiene Behavior Improved This area has produced the most visible achievements of the program thus far... IR 2.2: Water for Productive Use is More Effectively Harnessed and Ownership Increased Besides increasing coverage to basic water services for domestic purposes, the initiative also promoted multiple uses of water for productive purposes IR 2.3: Ability of Local Stakeholders to Manage, Maintain and Rehabilitate Water Systems and Watersheds The Initiative has provided capacity building in water systems maintenance and rehabilitation Extent of Multiple Uses of Water The life-changing repercussions of having safe water and improved sanitation has resulted in significant impacts in the following areas... Time Saved Safety Economic Empowerment IR 1.1: Capacity of Local Stakeholders for Inclusive Decision Making Participatory Video in Kenya was used as a means to build capacity in inclusive decision-making. Communities were trained in making short videos that expressed their environmental concerns to governments. IR 1.2: Water for Productive Use is more Effectively Harnessed and Ownership Increased Established Village Savings and Loans Associations (VSLAs) and Savings and Internal Lending Committees (SILCs) to promote financial and social empowerment and increase economic resilience to climactic and livelihood-related shocks IR 1.3: Creative Financing to Multiply Scale 72% of women responded being in an improved financial situation because of membership in a VSLA Programmatic Learning Respondents agreed that there has been effective learning on how to do good programming in all three strategic objectives Successful Methods for Learning Respondents rated the learning methods on a 1-5 usefulness scale SO 3: Risk Management IR 3.1: Community and local stakeholders’ capacity to plan, organize & manage water-related shocks and conflicts have improved

IR 3.2: Risk management initiatives are in place at regional and national levels to address water-related shocks in the context of global climate change.

IR 3.3: Natural Resource and IWRM GWI East Africa holds bi-annual regional meetings in order to create a forum for learning across the program... To ensure Lessons Learned are incorporated into Phase II, GWI will engage in the following actions... Putting in Roots Tools: Participatory Video The initiative has increased multiple uses of water over 5 years IR 3.1: Community and local stakeholders’ capacity to plan, organize & manage water-related shocks and conflicts IR 3.2: Risk management initiatives are in place at regional and national levels to address water-related shocks in the context of global climate change Learning is a cross-cutting strategic objective and has been a deliberate focus area in the program... Did You Know... Barriers to Learning A "lack of willingness to change" and "learning not included in the planning process" were identified as barriers to institutional learning Did You Know... Good governance is a critical factor for water point functionality, therefore Phase II will use the Functionality and Good Governance Tool to better assess and understand the sustainability of water schemes. The tool can be accessed on the CARE Water Wiki in the "Monitoring and Evaluation Tool" Folder: http://water.care2share.wikispaces.net/Measuring+Impact Action One: Action Two: Action Three: Action Four: Collect and analyze Learning, Monitoring and Evaluation (LEM) Tools Monitor and understand the factors that contribute to the sustainability of water schemes Women at Tula:
Water Scarcity and Management Good governance is foundational to success. The program strengthened governance within communities, with local government (basin or district-level or equivalent), and to some extent, with national government. GWI communities in the arid and semi arid areas of Eastern Africa are among the world’s most affected by climate change. The project invested in raising levels of awareness and building capacity around risk reduction in all the focal areas. KENYA ETHIOPIA UGANDA TANZANIA Inadequate Water Supply, Uganda Successfully created and/or revitalized community water user associations (WUAs): Elections 80% of committee and office bearers were elected by the community Women and Decision-Making 51% of committees had more than 50% women's participation Women reported having a significant role in decision-making in 78% of cases Use capacity building tools to assess potential risks to livelihoods Undertake an external impact assessment to better gauge long-term sustainability Assessing Scheme Functionality in Ehthiopia The LEM Tools in Practice Tools:
CRiSTAL and CVCA Why an Impact Assessment? Assessments many years after implementation are rarely undertaken; even rarer is an opportunity to directly apply the learning within follow-on work to ensure continued long-term sustainability Results CARE's Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) tool can be accessed here: http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf 68% of women report double or more water use, with 48% reporting that it takes half the time or less to fetch water compared to before, and 76% reporting significant improvements in water quality Effects on Women's Empowerment 69.1% of women feel a greater overall sense of empowerment Gender Equality in the Household 79.2% of women feel a greater sense of overall gender equality within their households PHAST Training in Uganda to promote Behavior Change So what does this mean... Women reported feeling 85.7% safer due to GWI Women's engagement in income generating activities is 62.3% higher Women's engagement with economic groupings is 63.4% higher 86% of water schemes are currently functioning well CVCA and CRiSTAL are tools that initiate community dialogue and help identify actions and strategies to increase community resilience to water-related shocks GWI provided technical assistance to local authorities through expertise or funding Community-level Management Plans 70 active watershed management plans with associated activities and regulations enforced
101 community resources map and environmental conservation plans created
76 community risk plans put in place 942,938 seedlings planted 90% agreed or strongly agreed that they were learning how to do good programming in good governance 92.8% agreed or strongly agreed that they were learning how to do good programming in sustainable multiple uses of water 54% agreed or strongly agreed that they were learning how to do good programming in risk management Using Special Community Groups to Manage Natural Resources in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: http://tinyurl.com/cnnp7j2 Increased Coverage Behavior Change For more information... The following GWI Briefs contain information on increased coverage of basic water and sanitation systems: Experience with Ceramic Point-of-Use Filters in Uganda: http://tinyurl.com/bnxmrm6
Breakthroughs with Arborloos in Ethiopia: http://tinyurl.com/bmqd3u6
Closing the Loop with Arborloo and Fossa Alterna in Tanzania: http://tinyurl.com/d5a7t69 Hand Dug Well, Ethiopia Training Stone Masons Water Pump Operators Water User Association Meeting Case Study: In Tanzania, GWI partners led a collective effort with the Ministry of Water, the basin water boards, NGOs, civil society organizations, the private sector and communities to formulate guidelines for the formation of WUAs across the nine river basins in Tanzania SILC Groups, Kenya IWRM Community Sensitization, Uganda For more information... The following GWI Brief contains additional information on managing natural resources in Ethiopia: For more information on Governance... Please click on the link below to access the GWI Governance and Sustainability Brief:
http://tinyurl.com/cxjtvpr For more information... On gathering data on women's experiences, please access the "Women's Experiences under GWI Survey Tool" here: http://tinyurl.com/ce8vjz9 Goal For more information.... The following GWI Brief contains information on the role of microfinance and sanitation in Tanzania: Linking Microfinance with Hygiene and Sanitation in Tanzania at http://tinyurl.com/ck98xs2 On the heterogeneity of women's experiences in the GWI initiative, please access the "Women's Experiences Research Brief" here: http://tinyurl.com/cp9xty3 For more information... The following GWI Briefs contain additional information on improved hygiene behavior: Using Community Health Groups as Role Models for Safe Hygiene and Sanitation Practices: http://tinyurl.com/d7cl2vp
WASH Promotion through Participatory Education Theater: http://tinyurl.com/cmgpjrm SO 2: Sustained Multiple Uses of Water Due to low existing coverage rates of water and sanitation in target areas, the project provided hardware, training, technical and management support in order to increase the number of people with access to safe water (with access adapted for multiple uses) and improved sanitation, and equip them with the knowledge to change hygiene behaviors. Lessons Learned Learning... 85.4% of respondents rated face-to-face discussions (such as meetings and workshops) a 4 or 5 in usefulness for facilitating learning 61.9% of respondents rated experiential learning (field visits, simulations, etc.) a 4 or 5 in usefulness for facilitating learninglearning During Phase I, GWI partners acknowledged an evolution in the initiative’s approach with emphasis now placed on building partnerships and influencing key decisions and decision-making contexts rather than on delivering services. Reflected below are some key lessons from the first Phase that are very relevant for the future as the program goes forward... 1: Understanding the complexities and limitations of promoting equal voice Good development processes require strong participatory approaches which encourage ownership and ensure appropriate solutions and sustainable transformation. However, organizations, local governments and communities are inherently unequal, and what works well for some might not work well for all. Understanding these nuances and applying methods that help identify and create discussion around these power dynamics should be explored in the future. 2. Managing Collaboration The multi-agency implementation model is complex and challenging, and requires flexibility and patience among all those involved. The lesson is applicable that the building of relationships—even those considered operational to the initiative- is in itself an activity that must be adequately planned for and managed. 3. Sustained Community Empowerment and Multi-Stakeholder Engagement GWI partners increasingly employed more participatory methods of engagement with local governments and promoted greater levels of inclusion across a larger cross-section of the communities. This was a time consuming process which took longer than desired (and planned). The lesson and challenge for GWI going forward will be to build on this by ensuring the adequate skill sets and mindsets for a persuasive rather than directive process of accomplishing change through influencing and facilitating the efforts of others. 4. Managing the balance of SOs Given the complexity of the program and the diversity of activities under each SO, as well as partners’ relative strengths, SO2 tended to dominate in comparison with the others. Partners can actively work to maintain a balance in program initiatives in Phase II... Empowering Poor People to Manage Water in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands in Tanzania Hand Dug Well, Ethiopia Household Latrine, Kenya Cattle Trough, Uganda Degraded Land Preparation, Ethiopia Field Visits, Uganda
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