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Psychology AS Attachment lesson 7
Transcript of Psychology AS Attachment lesson 7
The impact of day care on social development
What is the difference between 'institutional care' and 'day care'?
Institutional care refers to orphanages, fostering, hospitalised care; care that comes from institutions and is around the clock care.
Day care refers to care that is temporary and not all day and night. Care comes in the form of nurseries and childminders.
Types of day care: Day Nurseries
In the UK, most nurseries operate by catering for between 26 and 40 children. Children are divided into smaller groups according to their age. There should be 1 member of staff for every 8 children ages 3-5, one member of staff for every 4 children aged 2-3 and one member of staff for every 3 children aged under 2. All staff are qualified and nurseries are regulated by OFSTED.
Childminders can have a maximum of 3 children in their care and will usually look after children in their own home. Childminders must be registered with OFSTED but do not need to be qualified. OFSTED will perform checks on the home and childminder.
Quality of day care
Quality of day care can be influenced by these factors:
Staff to children ratio
Types of children
Read the EPPE study conducted by Sylva et al (2003)
Outline the aims, findings and conclusions and evaluation of this experiment - make sure that you are CONCISE and summarise the key points in as few words as possible!
Effects of daycare on aggression
Research shows that children who spend more than 20 hours a week in daycare are more likely to display antisocial behaviour. This risk is increased when children spend more than 40 hours a week in daycare. Research also suggests that a high turn over of staff will also increase levels of aggression.
NICHD (National Institute of Child health development) study
US government study that looked at children aged 4 1/2 years in kindergarten who were know to have challenging behaviour such as answering back to adults and attention seeking behaviour.
Compared with those who received 1-2-1 care with childminders, those in group care became more aggressive, even though quality and type of care and family situation were taken into account.
Effects of day care on peer relations
Research suggests (EPPE project) attending a pre-school environment was shown to promote independence, cooperation, conformity and sociability with other children. The greatest effects were noticed in care that offered staff with higher qualifications.
Clarke-Steward et al (1994) found that children in group based day care are more sociable and able to interact with peers better than children who were cared for by childminders
Other research also supports the notion that length of time spent in daycare effects the amount of friends children had as well as the amount of extra curricular activities they participate in (Field 1991).
Campbell et al (2001) also states that the age in which a child enters childcare has an impact on their social development. Before the age of 3 1/2 years plays an important role in shaping social skills for the child.
However some psychologists argue that there is no difference between type of care and relationships with other children. Larner et al (1989) carried out a longitudinal study of 120 swedish children at age 12 months up until the children were 10 years old. Half were cared for at home whilst the other half were cared for in daycare. The results show that INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES were more of an influence in future relationships with other children than early childhood experiences.
What conclusions can we draw on the effects of daycare on childhood development?
To assess the impact daycare has on early social development