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The War on Drugs


Brian Landeros

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of The War on Drugs

D.A.R.E and Other Prevention Programs
Characteristics of a Good Drug Prevention Program
A Little Bit About Prevention Programs...
The Situation
Political Conflict
D.A.R.E: A Brief History and How It Looks On Paper
Old D.A.R.E: Lessons
New D.A.R.E
Three Arguments
War On Drugs
“During the first half of the decade, an average of about 850,000 new unauthorized immigrants entered each year … declined … to an average of 300,000 per year for March 2007 to March 2009” (Passel, Cohn).
"The U.S. built an unprecedented network along the 1,900-mile border with Mexico: 165 truck and train X-ray machines; 650 miles of heavy duty fencing and sheer concrete walls; twice as many law enforcement officers along the entire stretch, and a small fleet of Predator drones. Also, remote surveillance cameras, thermal imaging devices and partially buried ground sensors that sound an alarm back at headquarters if someone steps on one in the desert" (Mendoza).
Costs of Border Security
“The Associated Press has investigated what taxpayers spend securing the U.S.-Mexico border. The price tag … $90 billion in 10 years” (Mendoza).
“According to spring 2011 Rasmussen poll, nearly two-thirds of Americans think the border is no more, or even less, secure than it was five years ago. Some administration critics claim that the United States' frontiers have never been more porous” (Alden, 2011).
Border Security
Too much?
Can we afford it?
Too little?
Are there other problems?
Cartels - the problem?
Illegal Immigration?
Where do the drugs come from?
Costs and Taxpayer Money
Is The Border Secure?
2/3s Say No
Majority Agrees
Increase Border Security
Decrease Border Security
Fighting the Source
"I know what I see," Vickers said, "and I have heard much worse from other ranchers out here who have been told to stay out of sections of their own land, who've had firearms brandished at them and shots fired by these cartel thugs who want to move people or drugs, or both. Nobody is imagining things" (Ross, 2012).
"You can't ever seal the border. You can never stop anything 100 percent. As long as there's a market, as long as there's a profit, there will always be someone taking a chance on getting that product through," says Democratic U.S. Rep. Silvestre Reyes" (Mendoza).
Drug Cartel Violence on Border
Drugs entering the United States
Illegal Immigrants
Taking American Jobs
Top 5 Most Dangerous vs. Top 5 Most Popular Drugs for Youth
Most Dangerous Overall
1. Heroin
2. Cocaine
3. Barbiturates
4. Methadone
5. Alcohol
Most Popular Among Youth
1. Marijuana
2. Prescription drugs
3. Ecstasy
4. Inhalants
5. Cocaine and Heroin
Heroin Abuse Results
Cocaine Abuse Results
Alcohol Abuse Results
Methadone Abuse Results
Celebrities Affected by Barbiturates (Sedatives/Pain Killers)
Marijuana Abuse Results
Celebrities Affected by Prescription Drug Abuse
Ecstasy Abuse Results
Inhalants Abuse Results
Heroin is a highly addictive drug that is processed from morphine, which comes from the seedpod of the opium Asian poppy plant. It is a depressant that inhibits the central nervous system.
Cocaine has powerful negative effects on the heart, brain, and emotions. Even occasional users run the risk of sudden death with cocaine use.
Barbiturates are a class of drugs derived from barbituric acid that act as depressants to the central nervous system. These drugs are frequently used for medical reasons as sedatives or anesthetics.
Methadone is used to relieve moderate to severe pain that has not been relieved by non-narcotic pain relievers. It also is used to prevent withdrawal symptoms in patients who were addicted to opiate drugs and are enrolled in treatment programs in order to stop taking or continue not taking the drugs.
Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient found in beer, wine, and liquor. Alcohol is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. It is a central nervous system depressant that is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine into the bloodstream.
It is a dry, shredded green and brown mix of flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves derived from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. When someone smokes marijuana, it rapidly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream, which carries chemicals to the brain and other organs throughout the body.
Prescription drug abuse means taking a prescription drug that is not prescribed for you, or taking it for reasons or in dosages other than as prescribed. Abuse of prescription drugs can produce serious health effects, including addiction.
Ecstasy produces feelings of increased energy, euphoria, emotional warmth, and distortions in time, perception, and tactile experiences. It can produce confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, and severe anxiety.
Inhalants can cause many changes in the body. Once the vapors enter the body, some are absorbed by parts of the brain and nervous system. Inhalants slow down the body's functions, similar to the effects of drinking alcohol. At first someone gets excited, but then gets tired, has trouble speaking clearly or walking well, gets dizzy, loses inhibitions, and may get agitated. It can sometimes take up to 2 weeks for the chemical to completely pass from the body.
Everyone has an idea in his or her head of what a person on drugs looks like, but the truth is, anyone can become addicted to drugs. Drug addiction does not depend on income, job, age, race or colour. It is a disease of the brain and it can happen to anyone. Youth often use and abuse drugs due to stress, depression, hereditary problems, or cultural reasons. Drugs create a false sensation of good feelings.
1. Alcohol kills 6.5 times more youth than “all other illicit drugs combined”.
2. Traffic crashes are the greatest cause of death for all people 6-33 years old. “About 45% of these fatalities are alcohol-related crashes”.
3. “More than 60% of teens” said that drugs were sold, used, or kept at their school.”
4. Crystal meth has become the “most dangerous drug problem of small town America.” Kids between 12 and 14 that live in smaller towns are “104% more likely to use meth than those who live in larger cities.
5. Youth who drink are “50 times more likely” to use cocaine than other young people who never drink alcohol.
6. “In 2008, 1.9 million” youth abused prescription drugs.
7. About “28% of teens” know a friend or classmate who has used ecstasy.
8. By 8th grade, “52% of adolescents have consumed alcohol, 41% have smoked cigarettes, and 20% have used marijuana.”
9. Teenager whose parents talk to them regularly about the dangers of drugs are “42% less likely to use drugs” than those whose parents don’t, yet only a quarter of teens report having these conversations.
1. Devoting more attention to early detection of addiction
2. Supporting an "integrated approach" for drug treatment, so that drug therapy is more available in public and social health services.
3. Making sure that there is "sufficient intervention to prevent the spread of diseases like HIV and hepatitis among drug users".
4. Promoting alternative measures to prison for drug addicts involved in crimes and "provide the same standard of health care in prisons as on the outside".
5. Sending drug users to rehab, not to jail, to cure them.
6. Paying greater attention to treating all forms of addiction because "there is no consolation for stabilizing drug trends if people turn instead to abusing other substances like solvents, prescription drugs, or alcohol."
We need to break the vicious circle of dependence and disadvantage by:
Military Budget
War we can't afford?
Cut Military
1,200 National Guard
165 Train and Truck X-Ray Machines
650 Miles of Fencing
Fleet of Predator Drones
"The U.S. can help our friends and allies bolster law enforcement and strengthen judicial reform in order to help halt impunity and corruption, and also work to strengthen military-to-military ties. At the same time, ending the cycle of criminality and violence will also require efforts to strengthen education and legitimate economic opportunities" (Zuckermann, 2012).
Jail Sentencing
by Drug

Is Border Security The Answer?
A Different Approach
What is America's Role in The World?
Cutting The Network
Cocaine: 500-4999 grams
Cocaine Base: 28-279 grams
LSD: 1-9 grams
Heroin: 100-999 grams
Methamphetamine: 5-49 grams
Methamphetamine mixture: 50-499 grams
PCP: 10-99 grams pure
PCP mixture: 100-999 grams
Cocaine: 5 kilograms or more
Cocaine Base: 280 grams or more
Heroin: 1 kilogram or more
LSD: 10 grams or more
Methamphetamine: 50 grams or more pure
Methamphetamine Mixture: 50 grams or more
PCP: 100 grams or more pure or 1 kilogram or more
The Argument
Prison Population
Early History
Religious Laws
One of the earliest substance laws dates back to the prohibition of the use of alcohol under Islamic law in the seventh century. Although Islamic law is usually thought to have prohibited the use of all drugs, hashish smoking has continued throughout the culture's history.
Religious intolerance quickly spread as a result of Spanish Inquisition against the Arabs and eventually reached Christian Europe where in 1484 Pope Innocent VIII banned the use of cannabis. As the popularity of witch-hunt groups grew, users of medicinal herbs were mainly targeted for executions as a result of society's newly-held view of narcotics. The inquisition spread to Meso-America and South America, where sacred plants of the Mexican culture such as ololiúqui and toloáche were prohibited and thought to be works of the devil.
The belief of unoriginal substances to be works of the devil rapidly spread and powerful religious representatives went so far as to accuse coffee of also representing Satan, however Pope Clement VIII declared that the beverage was "so delicious that it would be a pity to let the infidels have exclusive use of it.
Opium Restrictions
In the Qing Imperial China, opium was imported by the British East India Company and was used by all social classes. In 1839, because of public health reasons, the Chinese government eventually ended this trade by destroying all British opium stock in 1839. In an effort to protect this trade, the British declared what is now known as the First Opium War on China. The British were successful and forced the Treaty of Nanking upon China in order to protect foreign opium smugglers from Chinese law.
Central Asia
For the past decade, Afghanistan has dominated the opium market. A
2009 study showed that the total amount of opium production in the
country amounted to 6.900 metric tons, or 90% of the world's supply.
Besides opium, Afghanistan and other Central Asian countries also
serve as a large distributor of heroin in other the regions. About 15-20 annually tons are trafficked to China, while 35 metric tons are trafficked to other South and South-East Asia. Furthermore, about 25 tons are shipped to Africa and the remains are supplied to markets in other parts of Asia, North America, and Oceania.
Middle East and North Africa
Amphetamine Seizures
In the past few years, reports of seizures from certain narcotics in this
region have been much too common. Studies have shown the the main
culprit behind these findings is Fenethylline, which is used to treat
children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
History of the War on Drugs
International Drug Trade
“An estimated 660,000 pounds of cocaine, 44,000 pounds of heroin and 220,000 pounds of methamphetamine are on American streets in a given year, according to the Office of National Drug Control Policy” (Mendoza, 2011).
"In 2010, 1.64 million people were arrested for drug violations" (Porter, 2012).
Where does the issue lie?
Border Security?
Perhaps somewhere else?
The Underlying Issue
Supply and Demand
Current Trends in Prison Population (1990-2012)
Rockefeller Drug Laws
o In 1973 New York’s Governor Nelson Rockefeller pushed to the state legislature a set of
stringent anti-drug laws.
o These were the most severe laws of the nation and the purpose was to prevent citizens from using or selling drugs and to punish and isolate those who did use them
o This made a 15 years sentence to anyone selling 2 ounces or possessing 4 ounces of narcotic drugs (usually cocaine or heroin)
o The Committee on New York Drug Law Evaluations reported that heroin use or heroin related crime was as widespread in 1976 as it was in 1973 when the Rockefeller laws took place. These laws cost $76 million and 49 additional judges to handle cases for the new law, these laws were “described as a dismal failure” (prdi .org)
o In 1976, legislators removed marijuana from the list of substances in the Rockefeller Drug Laws, decriminalizing its use and the possession of 7/8 of an ounce. This amount concerned them because of the prison space use for marijuana offenders.
o In 1979 the legislature made the laws increase the amount of drugs needed to have a 15-year life sentence for sale and possession.
o In 1988 concern over crack cocaine made them to lower the weight for cocaine possession to make arrests for people possessing small amount of the drug.
o The Rockefeller Drug Laws have remained unchanged sine 1988.
o In New York the New Yorks prison population has quadrupled from about 20,000 in 1980 to 80,00 in 2000
oIn New York prison population for drug felonies went from 9% in 1980 to 33% in 1997.
(WIlson pg 1-2)
“President Richard Nixon wrote in his diary about his former boss’s approach to law and order “President Nixon emphasized that you have to face the fact that the whole problem is really the blacks. They key is to devise a system that recognizes this while appearing not to”-M.K. Asante, JR. “Its bigger than hip- hop” The Chief of Staff for President Nixon is referring about President Nixon's thoughts of the prison system. The key to the system is to create an idea to the people that black and whites are equal, but in reality the prison system is set up so that blacks are targeted more often than whites. "Professor Alexander presents evidence that more Black people are enslaved behind bars today than were enslaved on the plantations in 1850, before the Emancipation Proclamation was signed." (Edmond, pg 1)
Less than 1 kilogram
Nixon was the first to officially declare the "war on drugs"
There are 3 main types of prevention programs:
Universal programs
Selective programs
Indicated programs
Common goals:
"Increasing the knowledge about drugs in adolescents.
Reducing the use of drugs.
Delaying the onset of first use.
Reducing abuse of drugs.
Minimizing the harm caused by the use of drugs." (Cuijpers, Pim. “Three Decades of Drug Prevention Research.” Drugs: education, prevention and policy 10.1 (2003): 7-17. Web. )
An effective drug program should reach most or all of these goals.
Start young
Children are most likely to abuse drugs between the ages of ten and sixteen.
Children's brains are still developing during these ages.
Risk of drug use increases during times of transition.
Must be a science validated program
Science validated: Proven to be effective by reputable scientists using the scientific method.
Students engage in activities that make them talk to each other.
The Social Influence Approach
The social influence approach uses discussion about social forces such as peer pressure, and social norms.
Once kids understand these forces, they can better fight against them to avoid drugs.
Well distributed
You can have the best drug prevention program in the world, but if you don't get it to people it will not be any good.
Put prevention everywhere
There are several different places that prevention can take place: the school, the media, and the family.
Community interventions encompass all three and are proven to be the most effective because the subjects of the intervention have it coming at them from all sides and the community can adjust it's own program to make it more effective.
-During 1995 to 2005 there was very little change in incarceration for drug offenses, there was less than 1% but during the 1980’s and the 1990’s there was a very different trend.
-The number of African Americans in State Prisons for drug offense has declined by 21.6% from 1999-2005 (sentencing project)
-The number of whites incarcerated for a drug offense rose by 42.6(sentencing project)
Top 10 Most Popular Drugs
1. Marijuana
2. Heroin
3. Cocaine
4. Ecstasy
5. Amphetamines
6. Barbiturates/Benzodiazepines
7. LSD
8. Opium
9. Psychedelic Mushrooms
10. Solvents
Classification By Category
1. Antidepressants
2. Hallucinogens
3. Inhalants
4. Narcotics
5. Stimulants
A survey conducted in 2011 found that 7.2% of 8th graders, 17.6% of 10th graders and 22.6% of 12th graders had used marijuana in the previous month.
Psychedelic Mushrooms
Antidepressants are drugs, usually in the form of prescription medication, designed to treat symptoms of depression and anxiety by manipulating the levels of neurotransmitters released in the brain.
Side effects of antidepressant drugs include dry mouth, constipation, diarrhea, bladder problems, blurred vision, headaches, nausea, nervousness, agitation, sweating, insomnia, increased heart rate, arrhythmia, increased risk of GI bleeding, weight gain, anorexia, sedation, decreased seizure threshold, changes in blood pressure and increased risk of suicide.
Hallucinogens manipulate the neurons' release of serotonin in the brain, causing hallucinations and an altered perception of reality.
Side effects include rapidly changing feelings, dizziness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, hallucinations, suspicion, anxiety, muscle relaxation, weakness, loss of control, dilated pupils, dry mouth, increased body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased sweating, flushing, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, drowsiness. Hallucinogens may cause dramatic behavioral changes and/or irreversible brain damage upon first use.
Inhalants are substances that produce chemical vapors that can be inhaled through the nasal passage in order to induce a drunk-like sensation.
Side effects include loss of inhibitions, increased self confidence, excitement, euphoria, dazed, dizzy or drunk appearance, reckless/dangerous behavior, diarrhea, vomiting, bloodshot eyes, runny nose, nose bleeds and headaches. Inhalants can kill upon first use
Narcotics are drugs that provide immediate effects on the body. They manipulate the brain chemistry, resulting in increased pain tolerance.
Side effects include euphoria, rush, hallucinations, restlessness, loss of appetite, upset stomach, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, drowsiness, unsteadiness, confusion, suppression of pain, constricted pupils, scars caused by injections, difficulty urinating, constipation, sweating and difficulty breathing. The high level of addictiveness makes narcotics some of the most difficult drugs to quit.
Stimulants are drugs designed to speed up the central nervous system, resulting in increased alertness and endurance along with feelings of euphoria and well-being
Side effects include agitation, excessive activity, talkativeness, overconfidence, euphoria, irritability, argumentativeness, nervousness, enhanced concentration, suppressed tiredness, anxiety, headache, excessive perspiration, increased blood pressure and respiratory rate, reduced body temperature, heart palpitations, dilated pupils, irritation of eyes and nose, blurred vision, delusions, decreased appetite, weight loss, nausea, coughing, cramps, diarrhea, loss of coordination, tremors in the hands, dizziness and collapse.
Possible ways in which drugs can ruin lives:

People who become dependent on them will spend all their money to get it, and then often resort to stealing because they are so addicted to the drugs.
They will be unable to handle problems - rather than solving their problems, they take drugs to try to forget them. The problems don't go away though.
They will be unable to work or go to school because of their drug use, and be fired or expelled.
Never finish what you've started.
Always quit.
Be passive. Do nothing. Be spineless.
Always wait for others to act.
Be ignorant.
Never care about what is happening in the world.
Forget your priorities.
Spend more time on doing less important things and less time on doing the important ones.
Do drugs. We all know how devastating drugs can be for your life and the lives of your loved ones.
Always lock the door to your room to maintain your valuable privacy.
Turn your back on the friends who trusted you. Don’t be there for them when they need you the most.
Blame others for your misfortune.
Always complain.
Complain about your poor grades, and declining number of friends.
Spread negativity.
to do if you
want to ruin your life
How to ruin your life:
When it all started:
As seen in these numbers, sentencing varies per state laws and by drugs. Commonly, these years and fines increase with each repeated offense. Sentencing is also determined on the basis of possession of these drugs, or the production and distribution. Sentencing is much lighter on solely the possession of drugs, but production and distribution can easily double the jail time or fine. There is no distinct, predetermined sentencing for most drugs, leaving it up to the discretion of the judge. As seen in many other cases, judges may be more lenient toward a certain race or gender. These variations could have an effect on our nations large, and growing prison population as well.
-The war on drugs started centuries ago in China, however not officially in the United States until 1970.
-Since Nixon was the first to declare the "war on drugs" he took immediate action in hopes of reforming the population's views of drugs.
For Legalizing
The Argument
“It is estimated that pot is the largest cash crop in California, with annual revenues approaching $14 billion. A 10% pot tax would yield $1.4 billion in California alone.”
"We spend $68 billion per year on corrections, and one-third of those being corrected are serving time for nonviolent drug crimes."
Usage Rate
Unable to calculate
"Catalyst for Crime"
"However, no cross-sectional associations were observed between the density of medical marijuana dispensaries and violent or property crime rates"
Harmful Products
Colorado and Washington
Legalized Recreational Marijuana
Colorado will have:
$12 million in instant savings for the year following legalization because of reduced criminal costs.
$24 million new tax revenue generated from excise taxes on the wholesaler.
$8.7 million in new state sales tax revenue
$14.5 million in new local sales tax revenue
$60 million total in combined savings and additional revenue for Colorado’s Budget with a potential for this number to double after 2017.'
The Complication
The Strategy
Federal Vs. State
Supremacy Clause
This Constitution, and the laws of the United States... and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby.
Case Study
Federal to State
Amphetamines are a group of stimulant drugs, designed to create a feeling of euphoria, mental focus, and resistance to physical tiredness.
They have functioned as an appetite suppressant, and have been used to treat ADHD in children and adults.

-He increased the federal drug control agencies. Showing that he was “cracking down” on the drug use in the United States
-He placed one of the nation’s favorite drugs on the Schedule One list.
-This Schedule One list is the “most restrictive category of drugs” (drugpolicy.org).
-America has 2.2 million people currently in prisons or jails, while the world has a total of about 10 million people incarcerated. We are the worlds leader in incarceration. (Stevenson, pg 2) Over the past 30 years there has been a 500% increase in incarceration rates. This has resulted in overcrowding in prisons and jails. So what caused the sudden spike in incarceration rates in the 1980's?
These sentences are only include the years required by
federal law.
Less than
Cuijpers, Pim. “Three Decades of Drug Prevention Research.” Drugs: education, prevention and policy 10.1 (2003): 7-17. Web.

Preventing Drug Abuse: The Best Strategy. National Institute On Drug Abuse, August, 2010. Web. November 20, 2012.
Incarceration for drug use has gone up while incarceration for crimes has gone down
D.A.R.E was founded in 1983 in Los Angeles and quickly became one of the most widely used drug prevention programs for schools.
It is taught by police officers.
It looks good on paper because:
It focuses on youth.
It uses the social influence model by focusing on peer pressure, self-esteem, and how to act in group situations.
It is interactive.
It is very well-distributed.
"From 1980-1997, the drug incarceration rate rose over fourfold and crime and drug use began a steady unprecedented decline. Murder rates fell by over 25%, burglary rates dropped 41%, teen drug use reduced by more than a third, and heavy cocaine and heroin use levels fell. With peak drug incarceration rates, many cities, such as New York, reached record low crime levels."(Peterson pg.1) Why the drug incarceration rate had hit an all time high and crime incarceration rates were lower is because many of the major drug offenders were being targeted and put in prison. So this mostly left only minor drug possessors which were not as violent as many of the major ones that had been locked up.
DARE is often criticized for being too simplistic, and these lessons will show you why.

Lesson 3: Saying No To Drug Offers
"1. Say no thanks and walk away.
'Would you like a beer?'
'No thanks.' Walk away.
2. Say no thanks, give a reason or excuse, and walk away.
'Would you like to try smoking this?'
'No thanks, I don't like the smell.' Walk away."

Lesson 4: Handling Conflicts Without Violence
This lesson gives three examples of violent ways of solving problems using role plays. It also instructs the teacher to tell students that "the first step in handling a dispute is learning how to control angry feelings without striking out verbally or physically."

Lesson 5: Avoiding Gangs and Gang Violence
"Sometimes people join gangs for a sense of belonging, to feel special. Tell 5th grade students that they are special. Have the class break up into groups of two or three. They are supposed to interview each other and find out three things that make the others special and unique. Let the groups come up and introduce each other and share what they have learned.

Summarize the lesson by explaining that today the class learned that every person has special qualities to feel proud about. By sharing strengths and joining with classmates, the students will help each other and others stay off drugs and out of gangs."
The new and improved curriculum of D.A.R.E. is called Keepin' It Real. It will have stories from other kids about their experiences and emphasize the REAL method (refuse, explain, avoid, and leave).
No research has been done on it yet, so it is impossible to tell for sure how effective it is, but there are some signs of its effectiveness on the D.A.R.E website.
First, the name makes it seem like the organization is trying a little bit too hard to be cool.
“…stories from youth were collected and transformed into ten interactive lessons using videotapes and other highly involving teaching techniques.”
The president of D.A.R.E talks about prevention inside the “‘twenty first century school house.’”
The research for the lessons began in 1989.
Research About Old D.A.R.E And My Opinions
The study, Project D.A.R.E: No effects at ten year follow up, is very telling of the results that the old D.A.R.E program puts out. It compared sixth graders going through the D.A.R.E program to sixth graders going through their school's regular health education program.
Over ten years:
There was no difference in the use or expectations of cigarettes, marijuana, or other illicit drugs.
Self esteem went down.
It also brings up why people don't want to get rid of D.A.R.E:
“Teaching children to refrain from drug use is a widely accepted approach with which few individuals would argue.”
“A second possible explanation for the popularity of programs such as DARE is that they appear to work.” It continues to say that people compare children who have gone through DARE to children who have not had any preventative education at all, and most children who have gone through DARE do not engage in drugs. This is true, but most children in general do not engage in drugs. The focus groups they are usually compared to are high school teenagers who are at the peak of their likelihood for experimentation with drugs, therefore making drug use seem more prolific than it actually is and making DARE seem more effective than it really is.
D.A.R.E often advertises itself as the most cost-effective drug prevention program, but there is no point in having a cost-effective drug prevention program if the government is funneling millions of dollars into it but it is no more effective than what you are already using. I think parents, faculty, and students need to get together and get rid of the D.A.R.E program in lieu of something more effective.
DARE Lesson Three. Thinkquest.org, n.d. Web. November 18, 2012.
DARE Lesson Four. Thinkquest.org, n.d. Web. November 18, 2012.
DARE Lesson Five. Thinkquest.org, n.d. Web. November 18, 2012.
Lynam, Donald R., Milich, Richard, Zimmerman, Rick, Novak, Scott P., Logan, T.K., Martin, Catherine, Leukefeld, Carl, Clayton, Richard. “Project DARE No Effects At Ten Year Follow Up.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67.4 (1999): 590-593. Web.
New D.A.R.E Curriculum—“Keepin’ It Real”. D.A.R.E America, 2012. Web.
The "Get Tough Movement"
The movement started in the mid 1970's and escalated over the next 20 years. The "Get Tough" movement is a way for the government to enforce a set of policies that emphasize harsher punishments for crimes. The federal, state, local, and federal governments have all adopted these polices. Some policies include increase in drug arrests, resurgence of the death penalty, and increased racial profiling and community surveillance." While proponents claim these policies are race-neutral, poor people and people of color are overwhelmingly affected and ensnared by the criminal justice system." (Shah, pg. 1)
The Question
What are the economic and social consequences of legalizing Marijuana for recreational use?
Marijuana in the U.S. Economy
The Debate
Where did America get the money to fund prisons during the prison boom?
-During the late 1960's and the early 1970's the U.S. began to increase its law enforcement throughout the country.
-Currently, to house a person in prison it costs about $25,000 dollars a year. In total, it costs the government about $57 billion a year for incarceration costs. (Mauer pg. 7)
-After 15 years of massive growth in the prison system, they ran out of money to fund these prisons. Usually, when states build prisons, they ask voters if they approve the cost through a bond issue. (Corrections Project pg. 1) However, during this period voters began to say no. A lot of states began to ask private investments if they would fund the prisons and even run the prisons themselves. Usually a bed would cost $30- $60.
-This began the "Private Prison Industry." In 1984 Tennessee investors thought it would be a good business opportunity if they formed the "Corrections Corporation of America (CCA0" The Tennessee investors wanted to use a venture capital to build prisons and then, like a hotel, lease beds to the state to make profit.
CCA, Wackenhut Corrections Corporation and Cornell Corrections Inc. are the three largest firm and nearly own 10% of all prisons and jails in the U.S.
Very shortly after marijuana was placed on the schedule one list people all over the nation began to rebel against this act. The main way that this was shown was:
In a matter of four years, eleven states decriminalized marijuana to make it legal in their particular state.
Conflicts with Marijuana:
•When Nixon’s term ended and Carter was elected, one of his highlighting points was to have marijuana “decriminalized” for the entire country.
•It is believed that this is the platform that won over voters and got him elected.
•This liberty was taken advantage of as people began to use far more than the legal quantity.
After Nixon:
Bibliography (Temporary)
Border Security
Mendoza, Martha. “U.S. border security: Huge costs with mixed results”. AZ Central. Web. Retrieved 22 November 2012. http://www.azcentral.com/news/articles/2011/06/22/20110622us-border-security-huge-costs-mixed-results.html
Alden, Edward. Roberts, Bryan. “Are U.S. Borders Secure? Why We Don’t Know and How To Find Out”. Foreign Affairs. Web. Retrieved 22 November 2012. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67901/edward-alden-and-bryan-roberts/are-us-borders-secure Ross, Janell. “On Drug War Violence On Texas Border, Testimonials And Data Differ”. Huffington Post. Web. Retrieved 25 November 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/04/drug-war-violence_n_1849680.htmlZuckerman, Jessica. “Border Security Alone Not Enough To Stem The Tide Of Violence”. The Foundry. Web. Retrieved 25 November 2012. http://blog.heritage.org/2012/09/05/border-security-alone-not-enough-to-stem-the-tide-of-violence/
Cohn, D’Vera. Passel, Jeffrey. “U.S. Unauthorized Immigration Flows Are Down Sharply Since Mid-Decade”. Pew Research Center. Web. Retrieved 26 November 2012. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2010/09/01/us-unauthorized-immigration-flows-are-down-sharply-since-mid-decade/
Porter, Eduardo. “Numbers Tell of Failure in Drug War”. The New York Times. Web. Retrieved 27 November 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/04/business/in-rethinking-the-war-on-drugs-start-with-the-numbers.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&
LSD is the most powerful drug in the hallucinogen category.

LSD was originally created by Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman, who was trying to find a cure for the common cold.
-Once again marijuana was trialed to be placed on the list of illegal drugs.
-1980’s Reagan was elected and the crack down on drug users became more intense.
-So much so that the amount of people in jail for it went from 50,000 to 400,000
The crack down continues:
Opium originally comes from Greece and China. The drug is derived from the sap collected from opium poppy seedpods. The sap gives opium extremely powerful narcotic qualities, and makes it a highly addictive painkiller.
Psychedelic mushrooms are one of the most popular and commonly available psychedelics.
These mushrooms contain Psilocybin and Psilocin which are the ingredients responsible for the hallucinatory state.
Psychedelic mushrooms can be deadly enough to kill the user if the wrong mushrooms are picked.
Marijuana is a mild drug that belongs to the Hallucinogen category.
The easy accessibility plays a key role in the popularity of the drug.
-During Reagan’s term his wife started campaigning to stop the use of drugs
-Her slogan is known all over the country “Just Say No”
–Three words that have taken on a life of their own over the years.
-This started the zero tolerance policy
Heroin is a dangerous drug that belongs to the narcotic category.
Following the Civil War, there was a huge increase in the number of morphine addicts due to the large numbers of soldiers who had been injured in battle. Heroin was introduced as a less addictive alternative to morphine. It was widely available until it was discovered that it was more addictive, and more dangerous, than morphine.
Cocaine is a powerful drug that belongs to the stimulant category.
In the early years of the drug (late 1800's), cocaine was widely available in medicines designed for teething children and infants. The U.S. outlawed cocaine in the early 1900's
•“Los Angeles Police Chief Daryl Gates, who believed that “casual drug users should be taken out and shot,” founded the DARE drug education program, which was quickly adopted nationwide despite the lack of evidence of its effectiveness.” (drugpolicy.org)
Ecstasy is a drug that belongs to both the stimulant and hallucinogenic category.
Ecstasy tablets contain other drugs including Methamphetamine, Ketamine, Cocaine, DXM, and the diet drug Ephidrine.
Barbiturates are prescription drugs that belong to the Antidepressant category. In psychiatry and psychiatric hospitals, Barbiturates were used to sedate violent or disturbed patients.
Solvents are more mild drugs belonging to the inhalant category. They include any common household substance that gives off chemical vapors that can be inhaled in order to produce a high feeling.
Solvents were popularized in the 70's as the Punk scene's drug of choice.
Progression, or digression?
-“In 1985, the proportion of Americans polled who saw drug abuse as the nation's "number one problem" was just 2-6 percent. The figure grew through the remainder of the 1980s until, in September 1989, it reached a remarkable 64 percent – one of the most intense fixations by the American public on any issue in polling history. Within less than a year, however, the figure plummeted to less than 10 percent, as the media lost interest.” (drugpolicy.org)
-Conflicting views from one president to the next. Clinton said: “in a Rolling Stone interview that "we really need a re-examination of our entire policy on imprisonment" of people who use drugs, and said that marijuana use "should be decriminalized."” (drugpolicy.org)
Sentencing by Drug
Federal Marijuana Law. Americans for Safe Access, http://safeaccessnow.org/article.php?id=2638 LSD Sentencing on Trial in the Supreme Court. New America Media, http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=fdf124c06cdeb3ec05e61fad78fcb685 Federal Trafficking Penalties. Drug Enforcement Administration, http://www.justice.gov/dea/druginfo/ftp3.shtml Drug Sentencing and Penalties. American Civil Liberties Union, http://www.aclu.org/criminal-law-reform/drug-sentencing-and-penalties Smith, Phillip, Drug Sentences Driving Federal Prison Population Growth, Government Report Find. Drug War Chronicles, http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/2012/sep/13/drug_sentences_driving_federal_p

New D.A.R.E Curriculum—“Keepin’ It Real”. D.A.R.E America, 2012. Web.

West, Steven L. PhD, O’Neal, Keri K. PhD. “Project D.A.R.E Outcome Effectiveness Revisited.” American Journal of Public Health 94.6 (2003): 1027-1029. Web.

Reaves, Jessica. “Just Say No To DARE." Time Magazine. Time, Inc, Feb. 15, 2001. Web. November 18, 2012.

Lynam, Donald R., Milich, Richard, Zimmerman, Rick, Novak, Scott P., Logan, T.K., Martin, Catherine, Leukefeld, Carl, Clayton, Richard. “Project DARE No Effects At Ten Year Follow Up.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67.4 (1999): 590-593. Web.

DARE Lesson Three. Thinkquest.org, n.d. Web. November 18, 2012.

DARE Lesson Four. Thinkquest.org, n.d. Web. November 18, 2012.

DARE Lesson Five. Thinkquest.org, n.d. Web. November 18, 2012.

Preventing Drug Abuse: The Best Strategy. National Institute On Drug Abuse, August, 2010. Web. November 20, 2012.

Cuijpers, Pim. “Three Decades of Drug Prevention Research.” Drugs: education, prevention and policy 10.1 (2003): 7-17. Web.
Prison Population:

Peterson, Robert E., and Ethan A. Nadelmann. "Has the War on Drugs Reduced Crime."Has the War on Drugs Reduced Crime. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thirteen.org/closetohome/viewpoints/html/crime.html>

Mauer, Marc. "The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs." The Sentencing Project. N.p., Apr. 2009. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/dp_raceanddrugs.pdf>.

Wilson, Aaron D. "Rockefeller Drug Laws Information Sheet." PRDI. N.p., 8 Aug. 2000. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.prdi.org/rocklawfact.html>.

Valrey. "The Mass Incarceration of the Black Community: An Interview with Michelle Alexander, Author of 'The New Jim Crow' | San Francisco Bay View." San Francisco Bay View The Mass Incarceration of the Black Community an Interview with Michelle Alexander Author of The New Jim Crow Comments. N.p., 4 Apr. 2012. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. < http://sfbayview.com/2012/the-mass-incarceration-of-the-black-community-an-interview-with-michelle-alexander-author-of-the-new-jim-crow/>

Mauer, Marc. "Lessons of the "Get Tough" Movement in the United States." The Sentencing Project. N.p., 25 Oct. 2004. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/inc_lessonsofgettough.pdf>.

"CORRECTIONS: Prison Privatization and the Prison Boom." CORRECTIONS: Prison Privatization and the Prison Boom. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.<http://www.correctionsproject.com/corrections/pris_priv.htm>

Stevenson, Bryan. "Drug Policy, Criminal Justice, and Mass Imprisonment." Global Commissions on Drug Policies. N.p., 24 Jan. 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/wp-content/themes/gcdp_v1/pdf/Global_Com_Bryan_Stevenson.pdf>.

"New Jim Crow." New Jim Crow. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2012. <http://www.cflj.org/new-jim-crow/>.
Types and Use Popularity
Written by:
(in order of appearance)

Joliene Presseller
Hannah Munson
Matilda Kapidani
Jeremiah McClure
Alexander Sims
Brian Landeros
Pascale Steverlynck
Kiere Reeves
Nicole Suren

Youth And Drugs
Peer pressure
Curiosity or Experimentation
Self-esteem Issues
Dealing with Stress
To Escape from their Lives
As an Act of Rebellion
Mental Illness
What young people do not know about drugs is that there are other ways to deal with all of these issues. Drug addiction is similar to depression because a child can feel so unique in their current situation, and feel as if no one could ever understand what they are going through, so they turn to drugs to free them from their sadness.
Drugs make you feel on top of the world, grownup, in with the crowd, cool, hung over, special, confident, like a rebel. In short, it does different things for different people. But seen from a teen's perspective, drugs can appear to have more advantages than disadvantages. Otherwise kids wouldn't be doing drugs.
Why do kids take drugs?
Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean
Many countries in this area are transit countries for cocaine bound main consumer markets in North America and Europe. For the North American market, cocaine is generally transported from Colombia to Mexico or Central America by sea and then onwards by land to the United States and Canada. The US authorities estimate that close to 90% of the cocaine entering the country crosses the US/Mexico border, most of it then entering the state of Texas. According to US estimates, some 70% of the cocaine leaves Colombia via the Pacific.
Columbia's Influence
Colombia continues to be the main source of the cocaine found in Europe, but direct shipments from Peru and Bolivia are much more common than in the US market. The relative importance of Colombia seems to be in decline. For example, in 2002, the UK authorities reported that 90% of the cocaine seized originated in Colombia, but by 2008, dropped to 65%. In other European countries, Peru and Bolivia seem to be the primary source countries of cocaine.
Usage Rate
"If legalized, marijuana use will increase (even among children)"
"Catalyst for Crime"
Harmful Product
“Do we really want our governments to sell substances known to be toxic to the body, and which has no medical value that is recognized by the medical community, for the sake of sheer profit?”
Contra Legalizing
West and Central Africa
The Situation
Between 2004 and 2007, at least two distinct trans-shipment areas emerged in West Africa: one being centered on Guinea-Bissau and Guinea, and one centered in the Bight of Benin which spans from Ghana to Nigeria. Colombian traffickers transported cocaine by loads to the West African coast before offloading to smaller vessels. Some of this cocaine proceeded onward by sea to Spain and Portugal, but some was left as payment to West Africans for their assistance. The West Africans then trafficked this cocaine on their own. Shipments were also sent in modified small aircraft from the Bolivian Republic of Venezuela to various West African areas.
1.. "Legalizing Marijuana Not Worth the Costs ." CNBC.com. NBCUniversal, 20 2012. Web. 10 Dec 2012. <http://www.cnbc.com/id/36267217/Legalizing_Marijuana_Not_Worth_the_Costs>.2.. "Marijuana Economics 101." Pbs.org. WGBH Educational Foundation, 26 2012. Web. 10 Dec 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/the-pot-republic/marijuana-economics/>.3.Ferner, Matt. "Legalized Marijuana Could Generate $100 Million In Revenue Annually For Colorado: Report ." The Huffington Post. Huffington Post Inc., 17 2012. Web. 10 Dec 2012. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/16/legalized-marijuana-could_n_1791448.html>.4.Klein, Joe. "Why Legalizing Marijuana Makes Sense." Time.com. Time Inc, 2 2009. Web. 11 Dec 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1889166,00.html>.5.Ressler-Culp, Tara. "New Study Finds No Correlation Between Medical Marijuana Shops And Crime Rates." Center for American Progress Action Fund. Center for American Progress Action Fund, 27 2012. Web. 11 Dec 2012. <http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/06/27/507019/new-study-finds-no-correlation-between-medical-marijuana-shops-and-crime-rates/?mobile=nc>.6.U.S. Constitution. Art./Amend. VI.7.Yglesias, Matthew. "How Cheap Will Legal Marijuana Be in Colorado and Washington?." Slate.com. Washington Post Company, 12 2012. Web. 10
1.. "Legalizing Marijuana Not Worth the Costs ." CNBC.com. NBCUniversal, 20 2012. Web. 10 Dec 2012. <http://www.cnbc.com/id/36267217/Legalizing_Marijuana_Not_Worth_the_Costs>.2.. "Marijuana Economics 101." Pbs.org. WGBH Educational Foundation, 26 2012. Web. 10 Dec 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/the-pot-republic/marijuana-economics/>.3.Ferner, Matt. "Legalized Marijuana Could Generate $100 Million In Revenue Annually For Colorado: Report ." The Huffington Post. Huffington Post Inc., 17 2012. Web. 10 Dec 2012. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/16/legalized-marijuana-could_n_1791448.html>.4.Klein, Joe. "Why Legalizing Marijuana Makes Sense." Time.com. Time Inc, 2 2009. Web. 11 Dec 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1889166,00.html>.5.Ressler-Culp, Tara. "New Study Finds No Correlation Between Medical Marijuana Shops And Crime Rates." Center for American Progress Action Fund. Center for American Progress Action Fund, 27 2012. Web. 11 Dec 2012. <http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/06/27/507019/new-study-finds-no-correlation-between-medical-marijuana-shops-and-crime-rates/?mobile=nc>.6.U.S. Constitution. Art./Amend. VI.7.Yglesias, Matthew. "How Cheap Will Legal Marijuana Be in Colorado and Washington?." Slate.com. Washington Post Company, 12 2012. Web. 10
Types and Use Popularity:
Frater, J. (2009, August 12). Listverse. Retrieved from http://listverse.com/2009/08/12/top-10-most-popular-recreational-drugs/Youth on drugs-drug factuals. (2012). Retrieved from http://youthondrugs.com/drugsAmerican Council for Drug Association. (1999). American council for drug education. Retrieved from http://www.acde.org/common/Marijana.htmForbes. (n.d.). In pictures: The most popular prescription drugs. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2010/05/10/narcotic-painkiller-vicodin-business-healthcare-popular-drugs_slide_2.htmlNarconon.org. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.narconon.org/drug-information/cocaine-timeline.html
North America
When looking at the main source for drugs in the Americas, it is easy to point fingers at central American and Mexico as a main source. However, when it comes to shipments of ecstasy, they are looking in the wrong direction. Because the drug is a synthetic compound that can be manufactured anywhere, Latin America's warm climate does not provide the same advantage that it does for cocaine or opiates. Instead, it is Canada that has an advantage, because its large population of Asian immigrants gives its organized-crime groups easy access to Chinese suppliers of ecstasy's chemicals.
International Drug Trade:

“The New Jim Crow”“
Alexander explains how the criminal justice system functions as a new system of racial control by targeting black men through the “War on Drugs” (Center for Law and Justice) Michelle Alexander, the author of “The New Jim Crow” defines a racial caste “as a racial group locked into an inferior position by law and custom.” (Center for Law and Justice) Alexander talks a lot about that the caste system now and that it is no different than the one we had post Civil War, Jim Crow Laws. The Jim Crow laws were a set of laws that forced blacks to be separate from whites. For example blacks had to drink in separate water fountains than whites, they are not allowed to sit with whites, etc. These laws lasted from around 1877-1960. Alexander argues that the only way we can end this caste system is by creating a major social movement.
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