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the working model of memory

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vinicius apolinario

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of the working model of memory

the working model of memory
what does it
consist of:
central executive
phonolical loop
visuo-spatial sketchup
episodic buffer

The key component. It directs the attention to a task and determines how the resources will be allocated to the task.
these 'resources' are the 'Slave systems'.
Additionally the central executive has a very limited capacity which means it can't work with
very much information at once.
(multi-tasking)


EPISODIC BUFFER
Baddeley had to add the episodic buffer because
he realised that the model did not have a general store and it needed one.
the visual spacial and phonological loop deal with processing and storage of temporary information and the central executive has little storage capacity so the model was lacking a place to store the visual and the acoustic information.
the episodic buffer integrates the information from :
central executive
phonological loop
visual spatial sketchpad
long term memory
central executive
visuo-spatial
sketchpad
Used when you have to plan
a 'spatial task' which means
going to another room
or seeing how many things
there are in front of you.
Visual/ spatial information
is temporarily stored in this system.
visual information: how things look.
spatial information: relationship
between things.
Can be devided into:
visual cache
inner scribe
as suggested by Logie
phonological loop
The working memory model
Deals with auditory information
and preserves the order of the information
subdivided into the phonological store
and the articulatory process which is
the word being silently rehearsed
like an inner voice for
maintenance rehearsal

Evidence for the WMM
Central Executive:
Bunge et al (2000) did a study to prove the existence of the central executive in the WMM. He done a case study to show that the activity in the central executive increased when an individual performed two tasks simultaneously, this is called ‘dual tasking’. Bunge et al (2000) used fMRI to identify the parts of the brain which were the most active when the participants were dual tasking. He made the participants read a sentence and recall the final word in each sentence. When the participants dual tasked and single tasked the same areas of the brain were active, however there was more activation when the participants were dual tasking. This showed that the high attention demands were shown in the brain activity of the participants.
Phonological loop:
Baddeley et all produced the word length effect. This is used to describe the ability to regurgitate a sequence of words better with shorter words than longer words, rather than longer words. Baddeley’s word length effect showed that the capacity of the phonological loop is determined by the temporary duration. It also shows that memory span is determined by the rate of rehearsal. This suggests that longer words cannot be rehearsed and remembered because the words do not fit in the phonological loop. The word-length effect disappears if an individual Is given an articulatory suppression task. This is because the repetitive task ties up the articulatory process and makes it harder to rehearse shorter words as well as long words. In this case the word length disappears; this is evidence for the phonological loop’s existence.
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad:
Baddeley et al (1975) provided evidence of the existence of the visuo-spatial sketchpad by giving participants a visual tracking task (follow a moving light with a pointer). They were also given one other of two tasks;
Task 1 – Describe all the angles on the letter ‘F’.
Task 2 – Perform a verbal task.
Task 1 was shown as the most difficult by the participants, this was because the second task used to different slave systems. This study showed the effects of doing two tasks using either the same or different components of the WMM.
Episodic Buffer
Baddeley et al (1987) discovered that participants recalled sentences with related words better than ones with unrelated words, when asked to immediately recall them. Baddeley’s findings show that there is an immediate memory store for items that do not use the visual or phonological components of the WMM, which still allow the items to use the long –term store.

Evidence for the WMM - Central Executive
Central Executive
Bunge et al (2000) did a study to prove the existence of the central executive in the WMM. He done a case study to show that the activity in the central executive increased when an individual performed two tasks simultaneously, this is called ‘dual tasking’. Bunge et al (2000) used fMRI to identify the parts of the brain which were the most active when the participants were dual tasking. He made the participants read a sentence and recall the final word in each sentence. When the participants dual tasked and single tasked the same areas of the brain were active, however there was more activation when the participants were dual tasking. This showed that the high attention demands were shown in the brain activity of the participants.

Evidence - Phonological Loop
Phonological loop
Baddeley et all produced the word length effect. This is used to describe the ability to regurgitate a sequence of words better with shorter words than longer words, rather than longer words. Baddeley’s word length effect showed that the capacity of the phonological loop is determined by the temporary duration. It also shows that memory span is determined by the rate of rehearsal. This suggests that longer words cannot be rehearsed and remembered because the words do not fit in the phonological loop. The word-length effect disappears if an individual Is given an articulatory suppression task. This is because the repetitive task ties up the articulatory process and makes it harder to rehearse shorter words as well as long words. In this case the word length disappears; this is evidence for the phonological loop’s existence.

Evidence - The Visuo Spatial Sketchpad
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
Baddeley et al (1975) provided evidence of the existence of the visuo-spatial sketchpad by giving participants a visual tracking task (follow a moving light with a pointer). They were also given one other of two tasks;
Task 1 – Describe all the angles on the letter ‘F’.
Task 2 – Perform a verbal task.
Task 1 was shown as the most difficult by the participants, this was because the second task used to different slave systems. This study showed the effects of doing two tasks using either the same or different components of the WMM.

Evidence - The Episodic Buffer
Episodic Buffer
Baddeley et al (1987) discovered that participants recalled sentences with related words better than ones with unrelated words, when asked to immediately recall them. Baddeley’s findings show that there is an immediate memory store for items that do not use the visual or phonological components of the WMM, which still allow the items to use the long –term store.
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