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malaika parab

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of Proteins

Proteins- Building Blocks of Life!
By: Malaika, Ahana & Kristina

What are proteins?
Macromolecules are large, complex molecules
There are four kinds of macromolecules; proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids
Each of these macromolecules are polymers made up of monomers (which are organic molecules) when joined together i.e. proteins are made up of amino acids

More about Proteins
Where are proteins found in our bodies?
Functions of Proteins
Proteins primarily have 4 main functions:
Structural- proteins are the main components of body tissues such as muscle, skin, ligaments and hair
Catalytic- all enzymes are proteins which cause many biochemical reactions
Signalling- signalling receptors are all made from proteins, which are present in cells, and then later initiate a physiological response
Immunological- antibodies are proteins which react to foreign toxins (antigens) and latch onto them and then destroyed by phagocytes.
Foods with protein content
White Meat
Importance of Proteins
Main elements that make up proteins are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur
Proteins are present in each and every cell and tissue found in our body
They are worker molecules responsible for virtually every activity in our body
There are 20 different kinds of amino acids (the monomers that make up proteins) however, there are multiple different kinds of proteins.
outer layers of our skin
muscle cells
brain and nerves
As mentioned earlier, proteins play a vital role in our lives.
It plays many critical roles in keeping us alive and healthy
Ability to see, think, hear etc all require nerve cells to send messages across each other, and this is only possible because of proteins
They are responsible for making new cells
Why protein is THE most important macromolecule
A large intake of lipids can cause obesity and increase risk of heart disease
Eating too many carbohydrates such as starch can cause weight gain and thus result in unhealthier bodies
A large intake of nucleic acids doesn't really cause much harm; however the human body is more in need of proteins than nucleic acids, proteins are found all over
Proteins are the building blocks of life and also, high intake of proteins does not harm us, e.g. fish, considered a 'super food'.
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"Why You Need Protein in Your Diet." - For Dummies. Dummies.biz, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.
"How Our Bodies Use Protein." Human-kinetics. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.
"Macromolecule." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Sept. 2013. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.
"Why Is Consuming Too Many Lipids Bad for You?" LIVESTRONG.COM. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.
"Good Carbs vs. Bad Carbs." The Dr. Oz Show. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.
"Role of Proteins in the Body." Science Learning Hub RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.
Steane, Richard. "Hydrolysis of a Dipeptide." Hydrolysis of a Dipeptide. Howler Books, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013
Condensation Reaction Between Two Amino Acids - SchoolTube. Dir. Kirk Brown. SchoolTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013.
Structure of Proteins
As the sub-units are amino acids, there are 4 stages of structures, from primary to quaternary. A peptide bond is formed between two amino acids, the product is named a dipeptide. When the link is further extended, it creates a polypeptides. A protein is effectively formed when a polypeptide chain re-organises itself into a specific shape.

Hydrolysis reactions break apart dipeptides to make two amino acids. This is due to the addition of water. The results are 2 amino acids, it forms between the carbon and nitrogen
Condensation is the opposite-elimination of water where the amino acids are joined. This forms a peptide bond, where the nitrogen and carboxyl group are linked. This condensation can continue to form polypeptides.
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