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Direct Instruction Reading
Transcript of Direct Instruction Reading
"Each child should be guaranteed the right to successfully meet this challenge."
We will learn the details of what a code-emphasis approach to reading instruction should include.
We will become aware of the teaching techniques that will foster early reading success.
Common sounds of the 26 letters of the alphabet- in short, one-syllable word.
Stop sounds vs. continuous sounds:
pad vs. sad
Letters represent their most common sound: am, cat, mud, best, flag
One or more letters represent sounds
their most common sound: was
Two or three consonants
, each representing their
. Initial and final blends...
Review- Key Terms in Beginning Reading Instruction
Simple Regular Word Types
VC; CVC- it, fan
VCC; CVCC- lamp, ask
CVC stop sound beginning- cup, tin
CVCC stop sound beginning, consonant blend ending- dust, hand
CCVC (beginning with a consonant blend)-
crib, snap, flat, blend
CCVCC; CCCVC; CCCVCC-
clamp, spent, scrap, scrimp
Beginning Decoding Instruction
Overt strategy- sounding out words
Blend without pausing
Progress towards the more difficult
This video highlights some consonant blends commonly encountered in reading instruction. Why are they more difficult to decode than words beginning and ending with single consonants?
Direct Instruction Reading
Pre-skills for Sounding out Words
1. Letter-sound correspondences: Word reading can begin as soon as they know enough letter sounds to form words.
Full mastery is not required for word-reading instruction to begin.
2. Oral blending without pause-
3. Translation of connected sounds into words-
Text comprehension in beginning reading instruction is very simple. Receptive-expressive vocabulary is greater, in our students, than the words they encounter here.
Comprehension on wider topics should be presented verbally. Use oral instruction in wider range of comprehension topics than what is presented in the written text.
Type/quantity of comprehension instruction depends upon the entry-level skills of the child. At-risk students may need a foundational level of vocabulary instruction and practice with expressive language.
Include basic language and vocabulary instruction to increase student understanding of:
attributes of objects (size, shape, color)
labels for commonly-encountered objects
use of comparatives and superlatives
Oral language instruction benefits all students, but is crucial for our instructionally naive.
Phonemic Awareness & Alphabetic Understanding
Phonological Awareness: awareness of the larger parts of spoken language, as well as the smaller parts.
Phonemic Awareness: a sub-category of phonological awareness that focuses on identifying and manipulating the individual sounds within words.
spoken words- tiny, abstract sounds manipulated in a variety of ways
sounds are called
in the English language
Alphabetic Awareness, Alphabetic Understanding, & the Alphabetic Principle
Alphabetic awareness-reader has knowledge of letters of the alphabet and the corresponding idea that the letters of the alphabet represent sounds of spoken language.
Alphabetic understanding-reader understands that letters rep sounds and that whole words equal sound structure made up of individual sounds and patterns formed by groups of sounds.
Alphabetic principle- combining alphabetic understanding and phonemic awareness.
AP: independently translate a visual symbol into sound- relies heavily on the relationship between phonemic awareness and letter-sound correspondence.
Phonemic Awareness & Phonics
Phonemic awareness is not equal to phonics.
PA- understanding of how the sounds are
in language to form words
Phonics-system of symbols that represent sounds in the alphabetic writing system
Closely linked, instruction often overlaps, and effective instruction (National Reading Panel) means that phonemic awareness instruction and instruction in use of letters of the alphabet/manipulation of phonemes are intertwined.
Distinction by NRP- PA does not equal phonics instruction when just by teaching to manipulate phonemes in speech, but PA IS phonics instruction when it teaches to blend or segment with LETTERS.
When letters are used in PA instruction, then it overlaps phonics instruction. This furthers understanding of how PA skills link to knowledge of letters of the alphabet. Naming this is negotiable. Key understandings of PA:
uses letters of the alphabet while they are taught to manipulate phonemes
focus only on 1-2 rather than several types of phoneme manipulation
includes blending/segmenting of phonemes in words
explicit instruction on application of PA skills in reading and writing tasks
Pre-skills for sounding out words
Show students that:
words are composed of discrete sounds (PA skills)
Provide practice in saying sounds- BEFORE letter-sound correspondence is introduced (practice the difficult-to-say (th)
Prepare for later sounding-out exercises requiring blending (say them without pause between sounds)
Auditory skills- require no knowledge of letter-sound correspondence and require no view of graphemes (written letters) or words. Instruction can begin on day one.
Telescoping, segmenting, inclusive of four-six words per exercise and words/sounds that will be decoded int he near future.
My turn, your turn...let's get all the sounds right!
General Error-correction format:
5. Return to beginning of the exercise
Critical Teaching Behaviors
1) Saying the word slowly
3) Monitoring student performance
5) Individual Turns
6) Selecting examples
Rhyming as a PA Skill
Prepares students for the relationship between letter clusters that represent sounds in words (fan, pan, tan, man)
Prepares students for sounding-out words that begin with stop sounds. Pop quiz- what are some "stop sounds"?
Begin with words that start with continuous sounds...proceed to words that begin with stop sounds...
m mat f fill
r rat p pill
s sat k kill
Sample Lesson & Feedback
Thoughts, reactions, questions?