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Oral Comm 17- Persuasion
Transcript of Oral Comm 17- Persuasion
"the process of changing, reinforcing or creating
an audience's beliefs, attitudes, values or behavior."
Ethos- refers to a speakers credibility.
A public speaker should be ethical, possess good character, have common sense, and care for the audience.
Credibility- audience perception of
whether a speaker is qualified. Both
implicit and explicit credibility.
Logos- refers to logic and reasoning.
A public speaker should make logical and rational arguments with evidence to support points.
Never ever fabricate evidence
to make a point. Instead, change your viewpoint.
Pathos- refers to appeals to emotion.
A public speaker should not use emotion to persuade unless its subtle and genuine.
Emotions could include
fear, guilt, pride, and sex appeal.
False Cause- assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the first.
"Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc"
Slippery Slope- assumes that taking the first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
Inductive reasoning- "uses specific instances to reach a general conclusion."
Renewables are better than Fossil Fuels
1. It doesn't pollute the environment
2. It's cheaper
3. It reduced our dependence on foreign oil
Deductive Reasoning- "argument that moves
from a general statement to specific conclusion."
1. Major Premise- Old people are bad drivers
2. Minor Premise- Bob Barker is old
3. Conclusion- Bob Barker is a bad driver
Fallacy- "an error in reasoning."
*There are dozens of fallacies.
*Don't use in speeches
*Do avoid them when speaking
Red Herring- Irrelevant information used to
distract someone from the actual issue.
Invalid Analogy- when two things are compared
are not actually alike.
Bandwagon- reasoning that suggests because
everyone believes something than it must be valid.
Either/Or - The oversimplification of
an issue to a choice between two outcomes.
Ad Hominem- attacking irrelevant
information about the person, not the
argument or idea itself.
Appeal to Tradition
assumes that old is automatically better than new.
Appeal to Novelty
assumes that new is automatically better than old.
Fallacies of Assumption
Fallacies of Old and New
Types of Arguments
Fact- whether something is true/false
Value- discussing worth or importance
Policy- recommends course of action
A person beginning an argument
has an obligation...
....They must meet their "burden of proof"
Hasty Generalization- A conclusion
reached without adequate evidence.
Persuasive Project, Due Dec 11th
4-6 minutes in length
Basic Structure (Intro, Body, Closing)
Email me outline, bibliography, and link to speech
^^^3 verbal citations in body of the speech
^^^1 citation should be info from interview you conduct
Visual Aid- posterboard or handout or object
Can only use notecards
Must present behind podium. Record full shot
Topic: To persuade the audience to change an action using problem, cause, solution format.
What gives a speaker ethos?
Three Persuasive Appeals