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Russian Revolution Flow Chart
Transcript of Russian Revolution Flow Chart
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION STAGE II: Moderate Revolution STAGE I: Old Regime STAGE III: Radical STAGE IV: Return to Moderate STAGE V: Return to Absolutism Until 19th century, czars ruled Russia through absolutism
*Absolutism- Political belief that one ruler should hold all of the power within the boundaries of the country. Wave of reforms first hit Russia through czar, Alexander II Alexander II
"The Great Reformer"
Unified Russian language
1861, emancipated slaves
Yet, he was all words, no action--> Assasinated Alexander III 1845-1894 (took throne after Alexander II)
set censorship codes, e.g. Teacher reporting to government of students' work and behavior.
Began pogrom directed to Jews
Alexander III persecuted everyone associated with Alexander II's assasination. One of them was V. Lenin's brother, and through this, Lenin prepared to take revenge as he was exiled to Siberia. *Pogrom- persecution or tolerance of abuse directed to a particular group of people, or race. Nicholas II (1868-1918) took control after Alexander III died
Was considered ineffective leader--> Wasn't popular among people
Russo-Japanese War began
However, after losing Russo-Japanese War, realized they must industrize also--> sudden Industrialization begins
"Bloody Sunday"- workers bringing petition to Winter Palace for better working conditions, more freedom and elected legislature.
Many were killed, but led to creation of Duma (parliament)
However, Nicholas II dissolved Duma not too long after.
With the Communist Manifesto (Marxism), workers divided into two: Mensheviks (wanted moderate change, socialists) and Bolsheviks (wanted a completely different society, radicals, communists)
Then, Nicholas II decided to be part of WWI; however, went to front line even though imcompetent as a military leader, and while he was away, czarina took control. *Industrialization in Russia
Launched in full scale--> Caused major problems
had similar problems with England, e.g. poor working conditions, child labor
However, idea of communism and socialism was around the time for Russia--> Major communist movements The Czarina and Rasputin
Rumors that czarina was having an affair with Rasputin, loved and respected by many people during the time, and Rasputin was controling czarina to do what he wanted.
czarina and her family invited Rasputin over to kill him--> eventually, killed him.
FYI: czarina and the family tried the poisoned wine on him- didn't work-, then they shot him- he ran away-, and then the some of the boys stabbed him, rolled him up in a big carpet and threw him in a river.
Many myths and tales about this incident.
Consequences of Russo-Japanese War
winter + war = starvation and poverty
Lost soldiers, ships, and control--> Lost the war
higher taxes to fund war and loss of war angers the people--> beginning of reform movements in Russia
It also begins Industrialization in Russia. *Some Bolsheviks to remember:
L. Trotsky Vladimir Lenin Nicholas II kicked out by the provisional government due to March Revolution (1917). Duma leaders take control and set up a provisional government, and had Alexander Kerensky as the leader
However, had competition- the Soviets.
Soviets organized through Marxist revoltionaries
Provisional government > Soviets in terms of power
Provisional continued the war; however, this didn't solve problems (e.g. food shortage) Problems cause by WWI (1914)
food shortages, mutiny
imcompetent as military leader Nicholas II meets crisis:
WWI and Russo-Japanese War shows that he is incompetent as a military leader
food shortages- even women went on strike
Marxist movement becomes stronger
Germany's role during this chaos:
Didn't want Russia to continue to fight against them
Arranges with Bolsheviks to send Lenin back in order to stop Russia from being part of the war (1917).
Lenin comes back to give "Peace, Land, Bread" speech. Lenin's "Peace, Land, Bread" speech
Promised to end the war and bring peace to Russia
Promised people (especially farmers) equal distribution of land
Finally, promised people (especially women) plenty of food. However, he was chased by the provisional government--> had to leave and come back to Russia later on 1917. Alexander Kerensky After Lenin expirences the death of 14 million people, he comes up with new ideas for Economy The New Economic Policy
(NEP) Instead, he resorted to a small-scale version of capitalism called the NEP. Large factories, Industries, Banking, foreign realtions and Interantional trade were all under Lenin and his government control. ^^^^^
Lenin's experiment was succesful, and slowly, Russia's economy recovered. OCTOBER REVOLUTION!!!!!
October 1917, the Soviets assaulted the Winter Palace- the base for the provisional government.
All provisional government arrested
Russia ruled by Soviets, or the Bolsheviks. Lenin became leader of Bolsheviks = leader of Russia
Lenin, as predicted, begins to provide Russians with food and fuel in order to solve the problems. BUT as agreed..... SIGNS tREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK (mar 3, 1918) WITH GERMANY
AGREES RUSSIA TO BE OUT OF WWI.
HOWEVER, A GREAT LOSS TO THE rUSSIANS
Loss of 26 percent of population
Loss of 27 percent of farmland
Loss of 2 percent of railways
Loss of 74 percent of iron ore and coal [U.S.S.R]
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic Communist Party = Bolsheviks
The "Bolsheviks hate club" comes to bring them down!
The Russian Civil War:
Red Army vs. White Army Red Army = Bolsheviks
military led by L. Trotsky
White Army consists of:
Western countries- e.g. U.S.
anyonewho opposed the Bolsheviks Name changed in honor of the councils that helped launch the Bolshevik Revolution In 1924, the Communists created a constitution based on socialist and democratic principles. A Dictatorship of the Proletariat? <-- No more.
Lenin had established,...Lenin's Dictatorship of the Communist Party. Admiral kolchak,
led the White Army AS A RESULT.... RED ARMY DEFEATS WHITE ARMY!!!
However fatal loss to the nation itself
14 million deaths!!!- caused by epidemic, mass killing by Red Army, and famine.
Economy in ruins In March 1921, Lenin puts aside his plan for a state-controlled economy. Stalin Becomes Dictator Originally - Joseph Stalin Stalin was . . .
During the early Bolshevik days, he changed his name to "Stalin," which meant . . .
Man of Steel Lenin believed that Stalin was a dangerous man.
Shortly before Lenin died, Lenin wrote that Stalin had enormous amout of power, and wasn't sure if he could control it, and was threat to them. By 1928, Stalin was in total command of the communist Party. Trotsky (Rival), was fored into exile in 1929, was no longer a threat. Stalin now stood poised to wield absolute power as a dictator . BY DAVID KOOOOOO
and chris kim. David Koo Chris Kim Mensheviks didn't like the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk--> White Army
The czar family didn't like the Bolsheviks --> White Army
in power at all
The Western nations didn't like communism --> White Army Whites lose to Reds due to the fact that there are too many different forces trying to acheive their goal.