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Bio - Atoms and Molecules
Transcript of Bio - Atoms and Molecules
Species – organisms of one kind that can interbreed
1. Made of cells
2. Use chemical energy
3. Respond to environment
4. Reproduce & develop
Genetic material – DNA - Is passed to offspring
which Includes instructions for development into mature organisms
Is movement a characteristic of life? Explain.
What topics do you think we will study????
Characteristics of Life
Protons “+” charge
Neutrons “0” charge
1st – holds max 2 e-
- must be filled first!
2nd – holds max 8 e-
- must be filled next
3rd – holds max 8 e-
# protons = # electrons
Substance composed of only 1 type (kind) of atom
Atoms of the same element have the same #of protons that never varies
Symbol; 1 or 2 letters
Hydrogen = ? Carbon = ?
Oxygen = ? Nitrogen = ?
Particles with a charge: #p+ ____ # e-
Atoms can gain or lose e- (not p+!!!)
IF lose e- becomes “+” ion
IF gain e- becomes “–” ion
Atoms & Ions
If an atom was as large as a football stadium, and the electrons were zooming around in the seats, how big would the nucleus be?
Types of data
Types of experiments
Form Hypothesis: "if .... then...."
Evaluate & Share Results
New way of looking at the scientific method
Kinds Of Data
Types of Variables
Constants: factors that are not changed
Independent: the changed condition
the condition that is measured or observed
“depends” upon the independent variable being changed
How big is…
Kilo - K
deka - da
deci - d
centi - c
milli – m
micro - μ
nano - n
1/10 or .1
1/100 or .01
1/1000 or .001
= _____ m
= ____ c
= ____ d
= ________ m
Moving the decimal point (because the metric system is based on multiples of _____ ).
Show all work the long way.
Two ways to convert
a. 1145 mm x ________ = ________ m
b. 430 mL X _______= ______ L
c. 45 cm X _______ = _____ mm
d. 0.05 Kg X _______ = ________ g
e. 1.4 m X ________ = ________ cm
Weight of pencil is 75____.
Length of book is 24____.
Length of room is 13_____.
Weight of woman is 60 _____.
Volume cup is 140_____.
Length of paperclip is 31___.
Diameter of flower stem is 3 ____
Volume of blood in human is 5 ____
What metric unit would correctly complete the measurement?
Smaller to larger -
K H D m d c m
Larger to smaller -
When chemical bonds are formed, a chemical change occurs
Compound has different chemical & physical properties than the original elements
Concise way of expressing the number of atoms that are in a compound
Subscript number = # atoms of an element
H2O = __atom(s) of Hydrogen and ___ atom(s) of Oxygen
Matter composed of atoms from 2 or more kinds of elements chemically combined.
Atoms share e-
Each atom completes outermost energy level
Molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Atoms combine to achieve stability (HAPPINESS)
Atoms will gain, lose, or share electrons to complete their outermost energy level.
It's all about STABILITY & maximizing #e in outer orbital
How many molecules? Atoms?
# of molecules = # in front of a formula
# of atoms of an element = subscript #
# total atoms = # molecules X (# of each kind of atom added together)
Understanding Chemical Equations
Reactants: particles present before a reaction occurs
Products: particles present after a reaction
Arrow shows direction of reaction & points to product
Writing Equations for Chemical Reactions
Which of these are
Ionic structure? One Element?
Number Of Covalent Bonds
How many electrons are shared?
How many electrons are shared?
2H2 + O2
Causes excessive sweating and vomiting
Major component of acid rain
Causes severe burns as gas
Accidental inhalation is deadly
Contributes to erosion
Decreases effectiveness of brakes
Found in cancerous tumors
Transports substances in cells
Product or reactant of many chemical reactions
Why is water important for life?
2 H atoms + 1 O atom share electrons
Bent shape: mouse ears
Water is a molecule
Have a partial “+” end AND a partial “-” end
Caused by uneven sharing of electrons
O’s nucleus has a stronger pull on shared electrons than H’s nucleus does
Results in partial “+” charge at H’s & partial “-” charge at unshared e-’s on O
Water is polar because
Molecules that have no areas of + or – charge
Examples: oil or fats
What is Nonpolar?
H atom (partial + charge)
of one H2O molecule
is attracted to
O atom (partial - charge)
of another H2O molecule
Weak bond formed
Represented by dotted line
H2O forms ____ bonds with other H2O molecules
Water is a polar molecule: all of the important properties of water stem from this fact.
Properties of Water
H2O stick to other H2O molecules
surface tension results when H2O sticks to H2O rather than to air – and causes surface to contract
Example: “bead” of water on newly waxed car
H2O molecules stick to other molecules
Water moves up tiny tubes in plants because the tiny tubes are made of polar molecules- this is called capillary action
As temperature cools, molecules move slower
Stable H bonds hold H2O molecules far apart
Air is trapped in expanded lattice
Ice is less dense than liquid water
This allows animals to live under ice in winter
solvent (usually water) +
solute (substance that is dissolved)
4. H2O dissolves many compounds
H2O dissolves polar substances – why?
H2O dissolves ionic substances – why?
+H attracts – ion
-O attracts + ion
What color is Oxygen? Hydrogen?
Parts of Equation
3. Ice Floats
how big is an atom? Ted Ed
Energy clouds or levels
Contain Electrons “-”
Groupings become more inclusive
groupings become more similar
taxa (pl) taxon (s)
A B E
2.5 min 6 kingdoms
human mealworm earthworm chimp dog octopus
D Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya
K Animal Animal Animal Animal Animal Animal
P Chordata Arthropoda Annelida Chordata Chordata Molluska
C Mammalia Insecta Oligochaeta Mammalia Mammalia Cephalopoda
O Primates Coleoptera Haplotoxida Primates Carnivora Octopoda
F Hominidae Terebrionidae Lumbricidae Hominidae Canidae Octopedidae
G Homo Tenebrio Lumbricus Pan Canis Octopus
S sapiens molitar terrestris troglodytes familiaris vulgaris
2 min dogs teaching chem
1. Write at least 5 statements about what you've learned from observation & research.
2. Write 5 questions you would like to try to answer.
3. Choose one question with 1 independent variable that you can change and 1 dependent variable that you can measure or observe.
4. Write stepwise procedure, plan data table.
5. Submit one plan per group before doing lab.
dark/light dry/damp warm/cold food choice
7 min dichotomous amoeba
7 min amoeba
5. H2O resists temperature change:
body of water takes a long time to heat up or cool down compared to other kinds of molecules
Attraction of oppositely charged ions.
What is an ion?????
single covalent bonds
double covalent bonds
how many electrons are shared?
triple covalent bonds
Is a seed alive?
2H2 + O2 --> 2H2O
2H2 + O2 <-- 2H2O
2.5 min triple beam balance
2.5 min graduated cylinder
4 min polarity and H bonds
1 min dissolving salt
4 min why ice floats
2.5 min surface tension