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Bio - Atoms and Molecules

Life, Atoms, Chemical Bonds, and Water
by

Teresa Friedrichsen

on 23 September 2016

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Transcript of Bio - Atoms and Molecules

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/biocon.html
2.
Species – organisms of one kind that can interbreed
http://travel.ezinemark.com/amazing-features-of-emperor-penguins-77366f415b9e.html
1. Made of cells
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/plantmodel.html
2. Use chemical energy
3. Respond to environment
http://vaeng.com/feature/first-steps-taken-to-understand-how-plants-respond-to-extreme-changes
4. Reproduce & develop
Genetic material – DNA - Is passed to offspring
which Includes instructions for development into mature organisms
Is movement a characteristic of life? Explain.
Life
What topics do you think we will study????
Characteristics of Life
Atomic Structure
Nucleus contains
Protons “+” charge
Neutrons “0” charge
Electron Levels
1st – holds max 2 e-
- must be filled first!
2nd – holds max 8 e-
- must be filled next
3rd – holds max 8 e-
Neutral atom
# protons = # electrons
Elements
Substance composed of only 1 type (kind) of atom
Atoms of the same element have the same #of protons that never varies
Symbol; 1 or 2 letters
Hydrogen = ? Carbon = ?
Oxygen = ? Nitrogen = ?
Ions
Particles with a charge: #p+ ____ # e-
Atoms can gain or lose e- (not p+!!!)
IF lose e- becomes “+” ion
IF gain e- becomes “–” ion
http://www.nearingzero.net/screen_res/nz069.jpg
Atoms & Ions
If an atom was as large as a football stadium, and the electrons were zooming around in the seats, how big would the nucleus be?
Bonds
Metric
Water
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Manduca quinquemaculata
Cotesia congregatus
Form theory
Evaluate results
Analyze data
Types of data
Types of experiments
Test Hypothesis
Form Hypothesis
Observations
Form Hypothesis: "if .... then...."
Observations
Evaluate & Share Results
Test Hypothesis
Analyze Data
Form Theory
http://aim.psch.uic.edu/documents/Harwood_Reprint_JCST.pdf
New way of looking at the scientific method
Qualitative
Written descriptions
Photos
Recordings
Quantitative
Numbers
Tables
Graphs
Metric units
Kinds Of Data
Types of Variables
Constants: factors that are not changed
Independent: the changed condition
Dependent:
the condition that is measured or observed
“depends” upon the independent variable being changed
An inch?
A millimeter?
A centimeter?
A meter?
A liter?
A gram?
How big is…
Gram
Liter
Meter
Length
Volume
Weight
Basic
Metric Units
Kilo - K
hecto -h
deka - da
base
deci - d
centi - c
milli – m
micro - μ
nano - n
1000
100
10
1
1/10 or .1
1/100 or .01
1/1000 or .001
1/1,000,000
1/1,000,000,000
Prefixes
1
base
= _____ m
base
1
base
= ____ c
base
1
base
= ____ d
base
1 K
base
= _____
base
1 c
base
= ________ m
base
KNOW these!
Moving the decimal point (because the metric system is based on multiples of _____ ).
Show all work the long way.
Two ways to convert
a. 1145 mm x ________ = ________ m
b. 430 mL X _______= ______ L
c. 45 cm X _______ = _____ mm
d. 0.05 Kg X _______ = ________ g
e. 1.4 m X ________ = ________ cm
Weight of pencil is 75____.
Length of book is 24____.
Length of room is 13_____.
Weight of woman is 60 _____.
Volume cup is 140_____.
Length of paperclip is 31___.
Diameter of flower stem is 3 ____
Volume of blood in human is 5 ____
What metric unit would correctly complete the measurement?
Smaller to larger -
K H D m d c m
Larger to smaller -
X
÷
When chemical bonds are formed, a chemical change occurs
Compound has different chemical & physical properties than the original elements
Concise way of expressing the number of atoms that are in a compound
Subscript number = # atoms of an element
H2O = __atom(s) of Hydrogen and ___ atom(s) of Oxygen
Chemical Formula
Matter composed of atoms from 2 or more kinds of elements chemically combined.
Compounds
Atoms share e-
Each atom completes outermost energy level
Molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Atoms combine to achieve stability (HAPPINESS)
Atoms will gain, lose, or share electrons to complete their outermost energy level.
It's all about STABILITY & maximizing #e in outer orbital
Purpose
C6H12O6
5C2H7NO2
3C5H9N2O3
How many molecules? Atoms?
# of molecules = # in front of a formula
# of atoms of an element = subscript #
# total atoms = # molecules X (# of each kind of atom added together)
Understanding Chemical Equations
Reactants: particles present before a reaction occurs
Products: particles present after a reaction
Arrow shows direction of reaction & points to product
Writing Equations for Chemical Reactions
O=O
H-H
Na+Cl-
H-O-H
Which of these are
Molecules? Compounds?
Ionic structure? One Element?
Number Of Covalent Bonds
Covalent Bonds
How many electrons are shared?
Ionic Bonds
How many electrons are shared?
http://www.theodoregray.com/PeriodicTableDisplay/Tiles/017/s12.JPG
Sodium
http://resourcescommittee.house.gov/subcommittees/emr/usgsweb/photogallery/
 2H2O
2H2 + O2
Causes excessive sweating and vomiting
Major component of acid rain
Causes severe burns as gas
Accidental inhalation is deadly
Contributes to erosion
Decreases effectiveness of brakes
Found in cancerous tumors
DIHYDROGEN MONOXIDE
Dissolves substances
Transports substances in cells
Product or reactant of many chemical reactions
Why is water important for life?
2 H atoms + 1 O atom share electrons
Bent shape: mouse ears
Water is a molecule
Have a partial “+” end AND a partial “-” end
Caused by uneven sharing of electrons
Polar molecules
O’s nucleus has a stronger pull on shared electrons than H’s nucleus does
Results in partial “+” charge at H’s & partial “-” charge at unshared e-’s on O
Water is polar because
Molecules that have no areas of + or – charge
Examples: oil or fats
What is Nonpolar?
H atom (partial + charge)
of one H2O molecule
is attracted to
O atom (partial - charge)
of another H2O molecule
H Bonds
Weak bond formed
Represented by dotted line
H2O forms ____ bonds with other H2O molecules
Water is a polar molecule: all of the important properties of water stem from this fact.
Properties of Water
H2O stick to other H2O molecules
surface tension results when H2O sticks to H2O rather than to air – and causes surface to contract
Example: “bead” of water on newly waxed car
1. Cohesion
Air
http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/teachers/microgravity/6surf.html
H2O molecules stick to other molecules
2. Adhesion

Water moves up tiny tubes in plants because the tiny tubes are made of polar molecules- this is called capillary action
As temperature cools, molecules move slower
Stable H bonds hold H2O molecules far apart
Air is trapped in expanded lattice
Ice is less dense than liquid water
This allows animals to live under ice in winter
Solution =
solvent (usually water) +
solute (substance that is dissolved)
4. H2O dissolves many compounds
H2O dissolves polar substances – why?
H2O dissolves ionic substances – why?
+H attracts – ion
-O attracts + ion
What color is Oxygen? Hydrogen?
Parts of Equation
Hydrogen Bond
3. Ice Floats
how big is an atom? Ted Ed
Energy clouds or levels
Around nucleus
Contain Electrons “-”
Classification
http://taksreview.wikispaces.com/Taxonomy

Groupings become more inclusive

Organisms in
groupings become more similar

DOMAIN
KINGDOM
PHYLUM(division)
CLASS
ORDER
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES

Taxonomic Levels
http://home.planet.nl/~gkorthof/images/Linnaeus_luck.jpg

http://mac122.icu.ac.jp/gen-ed/classif-gifs/animal-class-example.gif

Eukarya
taxa (pl) taxon (s)
A B E
B
2.5 min 6 kingdoms
human mealworm earthworm chimp dog octopus
D Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya
K Animal Animal Animal Animal Animal Animal
P Chordata Arthropoda Annelida Chordata Chordata Molluska
C Mammalia Insecta Oligochaeta Mammalia Mammalia Cephalopoda
O Primates Coleoptera Haplotoxida Primates Carnivora Octopoda
F Hominidae Terebrionidae Lumbricidae Hominidae Canidae Octopedidae
G Homo Tenebrio Lumbricus Pan Canis Octopus
S sapiens molitar terrestris troglodytes familiaris vulgaris

2 min dogs teaching chem
mealworm pre-lab
1. Write at least 5 statements about what you've learned from observation & research.
2. Write 5 questions you would like to try to answer.
3. Choose one question with 1 independent variable that you can change and 1 dependent variable that you can measure or observe.

4. Write stepwise procedure, plan data table.
5. Submit one plan per group before doing lab.
dark/light dry/damp warm/cold food choice

7 min dichotomous amoeba
7 min amoeba
5. H2O resists temperature change:
body of water takes a long time to heat up or cool down compared to other kinds of molecules
Attraction of oppositely charged ions.

What is an ion?????
single covalent bonds
double covalent bonds
how many electrons are shared?
triple covalent bonds
Is a seed alive?
H-H
O=C=O
O=O
N=N
2H2 + O2 --> 2H2O
2H2 + O2 <-- 2H2O
2.5 min triple beam balance
2.5 min graduated cylinder
4 min polarity and H bonds
1 min dissolving salt
4 min why ice floats
2.5 min surface tension
Full transcript