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The Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale
Transcript of The Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale
Assesses preverbal and verbal areas of communication and interaction including:
1. Interaction-Attachment Skills
2. Pragmatic Skills
3. Gesture Skills
4. Play Skills
5. Language Comprehension Skills
6. Language Expression Skills
[Note: Not meant to assess sign language, but will make some generalizations for our children using sign language]
The Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale is a criterion referenced instrument designed to assess the communication skills of children from birth through 36 months of age.
1. Directly observe a behavior that occurs spontaneously.
2. Elicit a behavior from the child.
3. Use the parent’s or caregiver’s report to credit the child’s performance.
Important Principles of the Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale:
1. The Rossetti is
, yet relatively easy to use.
2. Examiner must have the freedom to determine in more than a single way if a child has mastered a behavior.
Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale Assesses 6 Areas of Communication and Interaction
5) Language Comprehension
6) Language Expression
The cues and responses that reflect a reciprocal relationship and communication between the caregiver and the child.
All about the bonding between child and caregiver = not a one-way street, back and forth, give and take.
Opportunities & abilities must be present for both child and caregiver. If absent or diminished, less desirable patterns of interaction and caregiving may develop.
Positive infant and caregiver interactions are believed to have long-term effects on a child’s cognitive, social and language skills.
The way language is used to communicate and affect others. Social communication.
Children learn language within the conversational context = initially by the interactions that take place between the infant and the caregiver.
Pragmatic development contributes to the child’s growth in social and interpersonal skills as well as communication skills.
The child’s use of gesture to express thought and intent prior to the consistent use of spoken language.
A noticeable lack of gestures from a child may be of concern and suggest the child’s communication development is at risk.
Gestures should be recognized as a functional part of a child’s communication system and their use should be encouraged.
Play behaviors provide an important way to monitor a child’s development of representational and symbolic thought.
For symbolic play to develop, the child must realize that a toy is only a representation or symbol of the real object.
For language to develop, the child must likewise understand that a word is a symbolic representation of an actual object.
Changes in play behavior reflect the development of cognitive skills necessary for the emergence of spoken language. [Note: Same for sign language to develop]
The child’s understanding of verbal language with and without linguistic cues. [Note: Child’s understanding of sign language]
Age-appropriate language comprehension ability is an important precursor to the emergence of spoken language. [Note: Same for expressive sign language]
The child’s use of preverbal and verbal [signed] behaviors to communicate with others using words.
An effective assessment of child’s expressive language includes many steps:
Parent/caregiver report of child’s behaviors, including lists of child’s spontaneous and imitated vocalizations, gestures, verbalizations, signs, etc.
Teacher observation of spontaneous and imitated child’s behaviors during assessment.
Design and Construction of The Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale
The items developed for The Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale were selected because they best reflect current information available about preverbal and verbal aspects of interaction and communication in young children.
a developmental age level: A child must demonstrate
behaviors for a particular developmental area within an age range.
If not, considered emerging.
Items are not included at every age range for each of the six developmental areas assessed by the scale.
The same test items are occasionally found in more than one developmental area assessed by the scale. Many aspects of language development overlap and because a specific behavior may signify a child’s development of more than one skill.
Overview of Materials
The Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale
The Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale Parent/Caregiver Questionnaire/Interview
The Rossetti Infant Toddler Language Scale Assessment Protocol
Used to gather information about the child’s past and present interaction and communication skills. (English/Spanish versions available in book and cd)
1. Questions about various aspects of the child’s development or communication and interaction skills.
How to administer the Parent/Caregiver Questionnaire:
Suggested that we send the questionnaire to the families before our assessment with a cover letter and stamped, self-addressed envelope.
It can also be completed as an interview on the date of the assessment (not returned or parent cannot read) Use the interview guide with additional questions to help guide interview.
Where to Begin and Where to End the Assessment
1. Find child’s
basal level of performance
for each developmental area =
all items are mastered
within an age range.
Begin the assessment with the Interaction-Attachment area, starting 6 months below the child’s chronological age or suspected developmental level.
If all items of Interaction-Attachment are not passed at this age level, testing moves backward in this developmental area until an age range is reached where all items are mastered.
2. Once a basal is established, testing proceeds forward until the
fails all items
for a developmental area at a particular age range. The age level is the child’s
ceiling level of performance
for that developmental area.
3. Repeat this procedure of establishing a basal first and then a ceiling in turn for each developmental area.
Items on the Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale are considered “passed” if the behavior in question is noted in one of these ways:
Observe (O): Examiner directly observes the child spontaneously demonstrate a desired or comparable behavior.
Place a check mark in the O column.
Elicit (E): Examiner or caregiver elicits a desired behavior from the child directly.
Place a check mark in the E column.
Report (R): When a behavior is not observed or elicited during the assessment, ask the caregiver if the child has mastered the behavior and if the behavior is present rarely or frequently.
Check mark in the R column.
Refer to suggested questions provided in manual to ask caregiver.
Two types of questions:
Note how frequently behaviors are reported.
4. If a child is not yet demonstrating a particular behavior, the box next to that test item on the protocol should be left untouched.
Different Ways to Interpret Results
Report individual basal and ceiling levels for each of the six developmental areas.
Report global basal and ceiling age levels for all developmental areas.
Prescriptive interpretation of assessment results, which tries the answer the question: “What is the next step for this child based on the assessment results just obtained?
Note the rate or pattern of developmental change the child makes over time. Can be instructive.
1. Typical rate of developmental progress = developmental gap between the child is functioning and where she/he should be functioning remains the same.
2. Child displays a pattern of development that falls further and further behind age expectations. Not a positive sign.
3. Catch-up growth = accelerated rate of developmental skill mastery; reduces the gap between where the child is functioning and where she/he should be functioning. Positive sign.
Rating the overall severity of the child’s communication delay:
: If a child’s ceiling level (failed all items for a developmental area at a particular age range) is
two age ranges, i.e. six months
, below chronological age expectations.
: If a child’s ceiling levels (within individual domains or globally) fall six to twelve months below chronological age expectations.
: If a child’s ceiling level is more than
15 months below
chronological age expectation
2. List of words frequently used by young children.
Caregiver places a
next to each word his/her child
words his/her child
3. Parent list additional words that his/her child uses.
You can refer to this list to score items in language comprehension and language expression sections of Rossetti.