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Ancient Civilization- Wk5


Sabrina Anand

on 13 August 2014

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Transcript of Ancient Civilization- Wk5

Ancient Civilizations
Our Heritage From Ancient Greece
Weak and no longer unified, the Greeks were conquered by King Philip of Macedonia.
Macedonia lay north of Greece, and many years later, it would be incorporated into parts of Greece, Bulgaria, and today’s Macedonia.)
Philip admired Greek culture and wanted to spread it throughout the civilized world.
He died before realizing his dream, and it was left to his son, Alexander the Great, to carry out Philip’s plan.
Alexander had conquered the Persian Empire.
This brought Greek ideas to the far-reaching borders of India.
Before the Empire established by Alexander fell to the Romans some two hundred years later, the Greeks had made lasting contributions to civilization.
In the field of government, they gave us the idea of democracy.
In philosophy, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle sought ways for humans to obtain truth and a real understanding of the universe.
Hippocrates is called the ‘Father of Medicine’ because he believed that diseases had natural causes.
Eratosthenes was one of the firs to believe that the earth was round, and even estimated its circumference with only a slight error.
Archimedes explained the principles of levers and pulleys, as well as the law of specific gravity.
Euclid wrote a book on geometry that was used in some classrooms until 1903.
The Parthenon, a temple in Athens dedicated to the goddess Athena, stands as one of the Greeks’ greatest architectural achievements.
Almost one hundred years of civil war brought an end to Greek independence.
Our Heritage From Ancient Greece cont.
Our Heritage From Ancient Greece cont.
Our Heritage From Ancient Greece cont.
Our Heritage From Ancient Greece cont.
Our Heritage From Ancient Greece cont.
Our Heritage From Ancient Greece cont.
In drama, talented writers such as Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes contributed tragedies and comedies that are still performed on stage today.
Other Greek scholars developed ideas that were passed on for thousands of years.
The Greeks were outstanding in the area of architecture.
Many of our public buildings today are modeled after those of ancient Greece.
The Founding of Rome
A little town called Rome sprang up on the Tiber River in Italy.
In time, it would grow to become the center of the largest empire of ancient times.
The earliest inhabitants of Rome were the Latins. They were a simple, industrious people who built a society based chiefly on farming and cattle raising.
However, invaders from Asia Minor seized control of Rome and held it for about one hundred years.
These invaders were the Etruscans, who had settled in northern Italy.
Then, the Latins overthrew a particularly harsh Etruscan king and established a republic.
A republic is a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to govern them.
In Rome, the people elected two consuls to head the government.
Like Athens, Rome was not a complete democracy.
Real power lay in the hands of the patricians, or wealthy landowners.
The plebeians, the lower class, at first had few rights.
They were not represented in the Senate, which made the laws and ruled the country.
In time, however, the plebeians won the right to elect their own representatives, called tribunes.
Eventually, the distinction between patrician and plebeian disappeared.
As Rome grew stronger, it conquered neighboring cities and made itself master of Italy.
Then it embarked upon a period of conquest that first brought it control of Carthage, a powerful city in north Africa, and then later the lands of the entire Mediterranean world.
Julius Caesar ended the republic and became dictator.
A short time later, the Roman Empire was born when Octavian, Caesar’s grandnephew, was crowned emperor.
The Founding of Rome cont.
The Founding of Rome cont.
The Founding of Rome cont.
The Founding of Rome cont.
The Founding of Rome cont.
The Founding of Rome cont.
These consuls were similar to modern presidents or prime ministers in their duties.
Soon the Romans found that a republican form of government was inadequate for controlling such a vast area with so many people.
The Roman Empire
A number of mighty empires rose and fell during ancient times.
Two of these were the Persian Empire and the empire of Alexander the Great.
However, the greatest empire by far was that of the Romans.
It included not only the lands that touched the Mediterranean Sea, but also all of Western
Europe, parts of central Europe, and the British Isles.
The Roman Empire began with the crowning of Octavian as Caesar Augustus.
It ended when Rome fell to invading Germanic tribes.
For over two hundred years, the Roman Empire was ruled by the emperor in Rome.
Emperor Diocletian appointed a co-emperor, Maximian, to share the responsibilities and burdens of the empire.
For the next hundred years, one emperor ruled from Rome while another ruled from Constantinople (now the city of Istanbul in Turkey).
Because of religious and other differences, the empire officially split into two parts: the Western Roman empire, centered at Rome, and the Eastern Roman Empire, centered in Constantinople.
The Roman Empire cont.
The Roman Empire cont.
The Roman Empire cont.
The Roman Empire cont.
However, in time, the difficulties of governing such a vast realm proved too much for one person.
The Eastern Roman Empire, which was also called the Byzantine Empire, outlasted the Western Empire by almost one thousand years.
The introduction of many slaves from conquered territories resulted in mass unemployment, even in rural areas.
Many farmers sold their land and moved to the cities, where they lived by means of support from government doles, which was money given out to provide for the poor and employed.
Huge amphitheaters, like the Colosseum in Rome, offered, among other things, gladiator fights and contests between men and ferocious animals.
Sometimes the floor of the Colosseum was flooded with water, and savage mock naval battles were fought.
Rome’s masses could also go to the Circus Maximus.
Many Romans bet money on their favorite charioteers, and skilled charioteers were viewed as heroes.
There they could bathe, work out in a gymnasium, or simple sit and visit with friends.
Roman industriousness, which had led to remarkable achievements in such areas as law, language, and architecture, had greatly declined.
Life in Rome
Life in Rome cont.
Life in Rome cont.
Life in Rome cont.
Life in Rome cont.
Life in Rome cont.
Life in Rome cont.
Wherever the Romans went, they transmitted Greek civilization to other peoples.
However, the Romans’ greatest contributions were in law and language.
In the field of law, the Romans gave the world the Justinian Code, which later became the model for the legal systems of Europe.
The Code even influenced the laws of England and America.
The Justinian Code emphasized several important points.
One was that all persons are equal under the law.
Latin, the language of Rome, became the basis for what are called the Romance languages.
The Romance languages are Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Romanian.
Many of the words in the English language are also derived from Latin.
The Romans were more imitators than originators of new ideas.
They admired and adapted much of Greek culture.
They even worshiped the Greek gods, but changed their names.
For example, Zeus became Jupiter, and Athena became Minerva.
Roman Contributions
Roman Contributions cont.
Roman Contributions cont.
Roman Contributions cont.
Roman Contributions cont.
Life changed as Rome grew into an empire.
To keep so many idle and dissatisfied people occupied, the Roman government staged free games and other forms entertainment.
Usually, the gladiators were criminals, prisoners of war, or slaves who were required to fight one another to the death.
This huge building housed a large oval racetrack where chariot races were held.
Another popular form of recreation for the Romans was visiting the public baths.
The baths were fed constantly with water that flowed from the mountains through large aqueducts.
For a small fee, citizens could spend a day at one of the baths.
This and many other problems contributed to the eventual fall of the Roman Empire.
Several outstanding Roman writers such as Cicero, Horace, Virgil, Livy, and Plutarch wrote great works.
The Romans themselves build imposing buildings, aqueducts, and roads.
Another was that a person is innocent until proven guilty.
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