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GLYCOLYSIS

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by

Demmie Basilio

on 14 June 2013

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Transcript of GLYCOLYSIS

CO
2
NADH
C
2 ADP
converted
2 ATP
GLUCOSE
ATP
ADP
is converted to
ATP
ADP
is converted to
P- GLUCOSE -P
Phosphate from ADP attaches itself
to glucose molecule.
GLYCOLYSIS
Glycolysis is the breaking
down of glucose into
pyruvate.
It is a catabolic process
occurs in the cytoplasm of the
cell outside the mitochondria.
This can occur aerobically or anaerobically
PROCESS OF GLYCOLYSIS
(C6H12O6)
TRIOSE
(C3H6O3-P)
Glucose breaks into a
smaller substance
Two ATP were used during this phase which is called investment phase.
TRIOSE
(C3H6O3-P)
NAD is reduced to NADH. It picks up 1 Hydrogen from triose molecule.
=2 NAD becomes 2 NADH
2 ATP
+
2 ATP
2 ADP
converted
2 ATP
At this stage 4 molecules of ADP are
phosphorylated forming 4 ATP molecules.
=4 ATP
4 ATP were produced by the process called
sustrate-level phosphorylation.
PYRUVATE
(C3H5O3)
PYRUVATE
(C3H5O3)
Phosphate
Phosphate
Each triose phosphate molecule is converted into pyruvate molecule.
In aerobic respiration, pyruvate goes into the matrix of the mitochondria.
In anaerobic respiration where oxygen is not present, pyruvate lactate converted to lactic acid then stored in the liver.
LINK REACTION
This is also known as,
pyruvate decarboxylation.
It occurs between glycolysis
and Krebs Cycle.
PYRUVATE
NAD NADH
C
C
reduced
1 carbon is kicked out of pyruvate molecule.
1 NAD is reduced to NADH. Pyruvate is now
converted to Acetyl-CoA.
ACETYL-CoA
C
C
KREBS CYCLE
ACETYL-CoA (2C)
OXALOACETATE (4C)
+
Citrate(6C)
decarboxylation
OXALOACETATE (4C)
C
C
C
C
C
C
alpha-Ketoglutarate (5C)
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
NADH
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
Succinyl-CoA (4C)
C
C
C
C
ATP
Succinate (4C)
Fumarate (4C)
FADH
Malate (4C)
NADH
CO
2
CO
2
COMPLEX I
COMPLEX III
COMPLEX V
or
ATP SYNTHASE
NADH
NAD
Intermembrane space
Intermembrane space
MATRIX
End Result of Glycolysis:
2 ATP
2NADH
2 Pyruvate

End Result of Link Reaction:
NADHx2
Acetyl-CoA x2
End Result of Krebs Cycle:
2 ATP (1 for each pyruvate)
6 NADH (3 for each pyruvate)
2 FADH(1 for each pyruvate)
This cycle happens twice for each glucose molecule so everything is doubled.
Oxaloacetate with 4C and Acetyl-CoA with 2C joined together creating Citrate with a total of 6C.
H
oxidized
e-
H+
e-
e-
e-
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
COMPLEX IV
Hydrogen splits into
electron and proton.
e-
O
2
1
-
2
of
+
+
= H O
2
ADP+
ATP
Pi
=
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
4
2
2
4
H+
4
2
2
.
.
Krebs Cycle
It occurs in the matrix of
mitochondria.
It is the stage of cellular
respiration following
glycolysis and
decarboxylation of
pyruvate.
.
.
.
.
COMPLEX II
Anaerobic Respiration
1 glucose of molecule =A Net gain of 6 ATP
Remember that there are two pyruvates in each glucose molecule so the convertion of pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA (2C) occurs twice.
.
.
During the conversion of citrate to alpha-Ketoglutarate,C02 is released and 1 NADH is produced.
The product which is the alpha-ketoglutarate has now 5 Carbon molecules because carbon is released during the process.
Same thing happens during the conversion of alpha-Ketoglutarate to Succinyl-CoA. NADH is produced and C02 is released which leave Succinyl-CoA a total of 4 carbon molecule.
ATP is produced during the conversion of Succynil-CoA to Succinate.
FADH is produced during the conversion of Succinate to Fumarate.
Then Fumarate is converted to Malate.
Then Malate is converted to Oxaloacetate.
The last NADH is produced during the conversion.
The oxaloacetate is now ready to join another Acetyl-CoA to start the whole process again.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
MATRIX
ATP
ATP
1
-
2
=
4
4
+
+
ADP+
Pi
2
ADP+
Pi
=
NADH is converted
to NAD.
4 protons are push through the
intermembrane space.
Electron goes in the
complex one.
Electron does not associate with
complex II. It just pass complex II
and goes straight to complex three.
While elctron is in complex III another 4 protons are pushed through the intermembrane space.
Then electron from Complex III travels
to Complex IV and joins 1/2 of 02 and
2 protons to make water.
Anothe 2 protons ar pump out to intemembrane space.
Protons then pass ATP synthase to create ATP.
Remember to create ATP 4 hydrogen are required
So in 1 NADH creates 2.5 ATP
1 FADH creates 2 ATP
NADHx10 = 2.5x10=25 ATP
FADHx2= 2x2 =4 ATP
=4ATP
33 ATP in TOTAL
Cellular Respiration
This is the story of how we gain energy from the food we eat,in the form of.... ATP!
Full transcript