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The White Lies of Race and Ethnicity

An overview of the marginalization, oppression and discrimination of African-Americans and Asian-Americans.

Eric Strother

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of The White Lies of Race and Ethnicity

The White Lies of Race and Ethnicity An overview of the marginalization, discrimination and oppression of African-Americans and Asian-Americans in the United States. Racism and Ethnic Oppression Racism is more than individual prejudice based on race. Racism is the power of a dominant group, through its systems and institutions, to enforce the dominant culture’s history, values, practices and beliefs. It advantages those in the dominant group and disadvantages those who are not. It results in disparities. (Unfaircampaign.org) What is racism? "Of course, particular meanings, stereotypes, and myths can change, but the presence of a system of racial meanings and stereotypes, of racial ideology, seems to be a permanent feature of U.S. culture" (Ore, p.23, 2011). Stereotypes, Biases and Discrimination Racially Charged Political Commentary Judy Chu, U.S. Congresswoman, California's 32nd District, Democrat Strengths and Resiliencies Rep. Sally Kern (R), Oklahoma House of Representatives In fact, according to the 1991 General Social Survey, 78 percent of [W]hites thought Blacks were more likely than [W]hites to prefer living on welfare, and 74 percent thought Hispanics more likely to prefer welfare. In the same study, 62 percent thought Blacks were less likely to be hard working; thought 56 percent thought Blacks were more prone to violence; 53 percent of [W]hites thought Blacks were less intelligent; and 51 percent thought them to be less patriotic. (Daniels, 1997) Survey from
The New York Times 1991 In the spring of 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act
was passed by Congress and signed by President Chester A. Arthur.

-Required nonlaborers [sic] to obtain special documentation from the Chinese government to prove qualifications
-Congress refused State and Federal courts the right to grant citizenship to Chinese resident aliens
-Expired in 1892 and Congress extended it for 10 more years, known as the Geary Act (written by Thomas Geary a Californian Congressman)
-1968 only 170,000 immigrants allowed to immigrate to the US from outside of the Western Hemisphere, only 20,000 from any one country Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Creating a voice in the National forum Resilience turned into a stereotype Shattering stereotypes 1860's 1960s What does it mean to be Asian American? Lessons Learned Did you know about America's Ancestry Stats?
I didn't! 1882 1933 Media Portrayals 1942 1984 2000s 1700's 1922 1800's 1900's Today Media Portrayals of Asian Americans Asian American Stereotypes
- affluence
- high education
- managerial jobs
- professional occupations The Model Minority (Taylor C. & Stem B. 1997 p.47) (Much more covert) Asian Countries I like it when people know which state I am from... Conservation of Heritage and Culture PREJUDICE is customarily defined as a feeling of hostility toward members of racial, nationality, and ethnic groups; STEREOTYPES, as the beliefs people have about such members; and DISCRIMINATION as the differential manner in which people behave toward them. (Rinehart, 1963. p.136-137) To understand that stereotypes are learned in interaction with others only partially explains their continued existence. We must ask not only where they come from but also why individuals are so prone to hang on to them once they have been learned. Examples of Jim Crow Laws (Rinehart, 1963 p.141) From the 1880s into the 1960s, a majority of American states enforced segregation through "Jim Crow" laws (so called after a black character in minstrel shows). From Delaware to California, and from North Dakota to Texas, many states (and cities, too) could impose legal punishments on people for consorting with members of another race. The most common types of laws forbade intermarriage and ordered business owners and public institutions to keep their black and white clientele separated. Jim Crow Laws Registered Asian Voters in 2008: - National Park Service www.nps.gov Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2008 How many single-race Asians voted in the 2008 presidential election? 589,000
A total of 3.4 million Asians voted. African-Americans as Athletes Howard Cosell's "monkey" comment on Monday Night Football in 1983 (30 second mark of video). Margaret Cho on: Racism, Asian Stereotypes, and the Virginia Tech Shootings Medicine Teaching Traditional Holidays Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Stats:
-Over 50 graduate programs offering Master's level training (entry level of the profession)
-44 states in the US have adopted the practice of AOM (Council of Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, 2012) References (Congress of the United States, 1882) The Chinese Exclusion Act 1950 The Internal Security Act prevents any foreigner who is a communist from coming into the country 1975 During the Vietnam War, the US resettled refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia Image References Anna May Wong [Online image]. (23 May, 2010). Retrieved Ocotber 2012 from http://www.asianoffbeat.com/default.asp?display=2185
Asian American Congressional Gains [Online image]. (2012). Retrieved October 2012 from http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/15/politics/asian-americans-congress/index.html
Asian American Whiz Kids [Online image]. (2012). Retrieved October 2012 from http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19870831,00.html
Census Data on Top US Ancestries by County [Online image]. (2000). Retrieved October 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Census-2000-Data-Top-US-Ancestries-by-County.svg&page=1
Chinese Exclusion Act [Online image]. (1882). Retrieved October 2012 from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=47
Chong [Online image]. (1919). Retrieved October 2012 from http://www.printsoldandrare.com/chineseamericans/
The Coming Man [Online image]. (1800s). Retrieved October 2012 from http://7sevenspeaks.blogspot.com/2012/06/who-is-chin-kee-and-where-does-he-come.html
Dexter-507 [Online image]. (ND). Retrieved October 2012 from http://entertaintrain.com/vince-masuka-cast-of-dexter/dexter-507
Fu Manchu [Online image]. (23 May, 2010). Retrieved October 2012 from http://www.thecimmerian.com/blogging-the-insidious-dr-fu-manchu-by-sax-rohmer-part-seven-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Ckaramaneh%E2%80%9D/
Internment Poster [Online image]. (ND). Retrieved October 2012 from http://www.altoarizona.com/history-of-racist-us-laws.html
Long Duk Dong [Online image]. (8 November, 2010). Retrieved October 2012 from http://iwontloveyoulongtime.blogspot.com/search?q=long
Mr. Yunioshi [Online image]. (10 November, 2010). Retrieved October 2012 from http://iwontloveyoulongtime.blogspot.com/search?q=Mr+Yunioshi Congress of the United States. (1882). Chinese exclusion act. Washington, D.C.: United States Congress.
Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=47 Council of Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. (2012). Frequently asked questions.Retrieved from http://www.ccaom.org/faqs.asp Daniels, J. (1997). White lies: Race, class, gender and sexuality in white supremacist discourse.(p.5). New York & London: Routledge Rinehart, J. W. (1963). The meaning of stereotypes. Theory into Practice, 2(3), 136-143. Taylor, C. & Stern, B. (1997). Asian-Americans: Television advertising and the “modelminority” stereotype. Journal of Advertising, 26(2), 47-61. Ore, T. E. (2011). Race and ethnicity: Racial formations. In The social construction of difference & inequality: Race, class, gender, and sexuality (5 ed., p. 23). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Census-2000-Data-Top-US-Ancestries-by-County.svg&page=1 Internment of Japanese Americans Ethnic Oppression As quoted by Parks, “NOW, THEREFORE, I FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, …do hereby make public proclamation to all whom it may concern that an invasion has been perpetrated upon the territory of the United States by the Empire of Japan…I do hereby further proclaim and direct that…all natives, citizens, denizens or subjects of the Empire of Japan being of the age of 14 years and upwards who shall be within the United States…and not actually naturalized, who for the purpose of this Proclamation are termed alien enemies,…liable to restraint…[A]lien enemies deemed dangerous to the public peace or safety of the United States by the Attorney General of the Secretary of War…are subject to summary apprehension [and]…confinement in such place of detention…as may directed from time to time by the Attorney General…[W]henever the Attorney General…deems it to be necessary for the public safety and protection to exclude alien enemies from a designated area, then no alien enemy shall be found within such area or the immediate vicinity (Code of Federal Regulations, pp. 273-276)” (Parks, 2004, p.576) “February 19, 1942, the President issued Executive order 9066, which explicitly gave the military the authority to prescribe designated areas from which any or all persons could be excluded as a “possible protection against espionage and against sabotage.”
(Parks, 2004, p.576). In March the Wartime Civilian Control Administration (WCCA) had been established as a military run civilian board that would plan and supervise the relocation of “all persons of Japanese Ancestry” (Parks, 2004, p577). Later the relocation and internment was taken out of military control and turned over by the government agency created to do so, War Relocation Authority (WRA). The WRA insisted that the “relocation centers” were not intended as internment camps but for the following purposes: “1. To provide communities where evacuees might live and contribute, through their work to their own support pending their gradual reabsorption into private employment and normal American life; and 2. To serve as wartime homes for those evacuees who might be unable or unfit to relocate in ordinary American communities (WRA, 1943a, p.2)”

(Parks, 2004, p.580). Parks, R. P. (2004). Revisiting manazanar: A history of japanese american internment camps aspresented in selected federal government documents 1941-2002. Journal of GovernmentInformation, 30, 575-593. "Racism, the belief in the inherent superiority of one race over all others and thereby the right
to dominance" (Lorde, 1980). A Concise Definition of Racism Lorde, A. (1980, April). Age, race, class and sex: Women redefining difference. Paper presented at the Copeland Colloquium, Amherst College. "African Americans represented a particular conundrum because not only were they not accorded individual civil rights because they were not White and owned no property, but they were constructed as property ! However, that construction was only in the sense that they could be owned by others" (Ladson-Billings, 2010, p.15). Racial Oppression in the United States Ladson-Billings, G. (2010). Just what is critical racetheory and what's it doing in a nice field like education?. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11, 1, 7-24. "African Americans, thus, represent a unique form of citizen in the USA; property transformed into citizen. This process has not been a smooth one. When Chief Justice Taney concluded in the Dred Scott decision that African Americans had no rights that Whites were required to respect, he reinscribed the person-as-property status of African Americans. Later in Plessy v. Ferguson the high court once again denied full citizenship rights to African Americans as a way to assert White property rights; rights to use and enjoy and the absolute right to exclude" (Ladson-Billings, 2010, p.16). Stereotypes of African American traits:
1. Violence
2. Lazy
3. Dependence The Failing Minority (Fujioka, 1999, p. 53) "Newscasts and documentaries often convey the images of urban poor Blacks who are involved in anti-social activities such as crime, violence, and drugs" (Fujioka, 1999, p.55). "Positive minority television portrayals may create favorable public attitude, while negative minority portrayals may cause unfavorable public views of minority groups" (Fujioka, 1999, p. 55). positive vs. negative Fujioka, Y. (1999). Television portrayals and african-american stereotypes: Examination of television effects when direct contact is lacking. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76, 1, 52-75. References (Cont.) "Most myths attempting to rationalize the dominance of African Americans in specific sports generally have little scientific credibility. For example, there remains the popular belief that African American athletes are physically superior to white athletes, and that their superior body build is genetically determined, giving them an advantage over their white counterparts" The Myth of Genetics (Sailes, 1990, p. 90) "Support for the physical superiority myth indirectly contributes to the belief that the African American athlete is mentally and intellectually inferior to the white athlete" (Sailes, 1993, p. 90) Community Leadership Music Faith Sailes, G.A. (1993). An Investigation of Campus stereotypes: The myth of black athletic superiority and the dumb jock stereotype. Sociology of Sport Journal, 10, 88-97. Resilience in the face of a history filled with racism and oppression; finding strength, unity and dignity. Participants were first recruited in pairs for a separate study investigating how people perform within a quiz game setting. After the game (irrelevant for current purposes),the White research assistant for that experimental session then asked participants to complete our 30-item survey under the pretense that it was for another researcher collecting data for a clinical psychology study.
To discourage participants from thinking the social
behavior survey was in any way associated with the experiment they had just finished, the survey items were typed in a distinct font and included a brief paragraph describing the study as about social perspectives and life experiences.
All individuals agreed to fill out the survey in a private room. The research assistant remained blind to participants’ prejudice scores the entire time. After completing the survey, participants were fully debriefed.
Aone-way multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA) on the nine everyday social behaviors revealed a significant effect of prejudice level, F(9, 37) = 4.55, p < .001.
This finding illustrates that the SAAAS identifies highand low-prejudice individuals who differ in their actual social interactions with Asian Americans and their levels of Asian American cultural interest (Lin, et al 2004) Eric Strother Presented by: Jesse Cirolia (Heckman, 2011, p. 4). "To gauge if disparity in wages is a uniquely African American experience, I compare their shortfalls with those of Hispanics. A negative number denotes a shortfall. Black males earn25% less than White males. Hispanic males earn 15% less than White males" (Martin, McCarthy, Conger, Gibbons, Simons, Cutrona, & Brody, 2010, p.662) Adolescent Black American males’ homicide victimization rate is about seven times higher than the rate for White adolescents In a study of 897 African-Americans who were 10-12 years old in Iowa (n=475) and Georgia (n=422), this was reported:

66% said they had been insulted for being African-American

40% said that someone had yelled a racial slur or insult at them (Martin et al., 2010, p. 670) Heckman, J. J. (2011). The american family in black and white: A post-racial strategy for improving skills to promote equality. Daedalus, 140, 2, 70-89. Martin, M.J, McCarthy, B., Conger, R.D., Gibbons, F.X., Simons, R.L., Cutrona, C.E., & Brody, G.H. (2010). The enduring significance of racism: Discrimination and delinquency among black american youth. Journal of Research on Adolescents, 21, 3, 662-676.
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