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2.4 Migrations, Rebellions & Unions

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Jillian Leigh

on 25 April 2018

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Transcript of 2.4 Migrations, Rebellions & Unions

Key Questions
How was the Great Migration of 1815-1850 in Upper & Lower Canada an attempt to confirm British identity in the Province of Canada?

What issues were raised by the Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 in Upper & Lower Canada?

How was the Act of Union of 1840 an attempt to resolve the issues raised by the Rebellions?

How was Confederation an attempt to provide the populations of Quebec & Ontario with increased control over their own affairs?

How was Confederation an attempt to strengthen the Maritime colonies?

The Great Migration, 1815-1850
Wave of immigrants from Britain began to arrive in BNA --> shifted demographics
More farms
cleared more land --> pushed borders of First Nations land
Rebellions of 1837-38
Insurgents in Upper & Lower Canada mounted armed rebellions against the Crown and political situation.
The Durham Report
The British put down the Rebellions with violence
Then decided to investigate why they'd taken place - done by Lord Durham
didn't want to lose Upper & Lower Canada the way they had the 13 Colonies
Act of Union, 1841
Passed based on recommendations from Durham Report.

GOAL: Assimilate the Canadiens.
1) Political Deadlock

2) Canadien Rights

3) Independence for Regions

Triggers for Great Migration
1) Poverty in Britain (PUSH)
loss of jobs & economic slow down
machines replacing people
end of Napoleonic Wars
1840 - potato famine in Ireland
Recommendations of the Durham Report:
1) Union of Upper & Lower Canada --> "Canada East" & "Canada West"

2) More democratic government - let the colonists have more power to govern themselves

3) Assimilation of the Canadiens
2.4 Migrations, Rebellions & Unions
2) Opportunity in the Colonies (PULL)
provided a place to move & start over
Britain encouraged this --> relief from economic troubles, enforced loyalty
Rebellion of 1837 - Lower Canada
Was the more serious and violent revolt.
Power Struggle
Governor-appointed Council --> Anglos & Protestants ("Chateau Clique")
Elected Assembly --> Francophone & Catholic

1832 - Fighting between Canadien & Anglo voters during election
British soldiers called in to break up fight, shot 3 Canadiens

1832- Cholera Epidemic
brought by British & Irish immigrants landing in Quebec--> killed almost 5 000 people

4 Years of Crop Failures
hardship to Lower Canada
1837 winter, many farmers (most Canadien) faced starvation
Rebellion of 1838 - Upper Canada
Power Struggle
Governor-appointed Council --> "Family Compact" (group of wealthy English Canadian families)
1834 - Reform Party won a majority in elected assembly
supported by people who'd come to Canada from USA - NOT Loyalists

1836 - Governor interference
made sure a party he favoured - NOT the Reform Party - won the majority

1837 - widespread crop failures
someone who seeks to change established rules and arrangements in society

3 Key Reformers:
Louis-Joseph Papineau (Lower Canada)
William Lyon Mackenzie (Upper Canada)
Joseph Howe (Nova Scotia)
2) Responsible Government
Legislative Council --> governor appointed
Equal representation in Assembly
--> Canada West seats = Canada East seats
1) Political Deadlock
The inability to decide on a course of action because of disagreement among equally powerful decision-makers.
How did the political structure of the province of Canada encourage the development of political deadlocks?
2) Canadien Rights
The Act of Union had tried to assimilate Canadiens
--> still managed to protect their language & religion

Needed a guarantee that any new political arrangement would recognize & respect their rights

3) Independence for Regions
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, PEI
British colonies who governed selves

Worried about losing independent character if they joined Canada East & West
smaller populations --> worried about being pushed around
4) Risk of American Annexation
: takeover of a territory by another country
5) Western Expansion
By 1860, immigrants to Canada West had developed nearly all the good farmland

Looked to expand west into Rupert's Land
also worried about American ambitions, looking to claim this land
6) Trade Challenges
1840s, Britain took steps to end mercantilism --> opened market to resources from all suppliers (other countries)
BNA resources only bought if they were the cheapest --> now having to compete on bigger market

End of Reciprocity Treaty with USA in 1865
BNA used to be able to sell goods to USA at competitive prices
USA added a tariff to the goods --> goodbye, free trade
Road to Confederation
Charlottetown Conference 1864 - Meeting of the "Fathers of Confederation"
Following several meetings in BNA and Britain, the British North America Act was passed
Key Points of BNA Act
1) Province of Canada
combined Upper & Lower Canada
became Canada West & Canada East
3) Language
English became the official language
2 View Points on Confederation:
1) Great way to secure rights for Canadiens
2) Threat to Canadiens --> gave federal gov't too much power
4) Risk of American Annexation

5) Western Expansion

6) Trade Challenges
Canada West
Canada East
Tories (Conservatives)
John A. MacDonald
Grits (Liberals)
George Brown
George-Etienne Cartier
Antoine -Aime Dorion
Also worried about the cost - creating and paying for a "general gov't" cost $$$
BNA Act of 1867
Written by John A. Macdonald & George-Etienne Cartier

Established Confederation & served as the constitution of Canada

Passed in Britain in 1867, creating the Dominion of Canada
Canada East & West, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
Strengthening the Maritime Colonies
Maritimes had a strong economic connection with Britain
almost NO connection with Canada & interior of N.A.

Sir John A. Macdonald & George-Etienne Cartier (leaders of CW & CE) offered economic benefits for joining Confederation
railway linking Maritimes to interior
$ for roads, bridges & other development

political process for uniting the colonies and creating a strong central government.


official set of rules about how a country is governed
2) Minority Rights
3) Government
4) Railway
federal government given the power to make laws for the "PEACE, ORDER & GOOD GOVERNMENT" of Canada
2) Minority Rights
Religion based rights/protections by gov't
Public schools for religious minorities
Protestants in QB
Catholics in rest of Canada
3) Government
Rep by Pop
determined the # of seats in the House of Commons by population

English & French --> official languages of parliament

Division of powers between provincial & federal gov't
4) Railway
completion of the railway linking the Maritimes with Central Canada
Assimilating the First Nations
Confederation negotiations happened without consulting the First Nations
idea of "Canadian citizenship" didn't include the First Nations

1857 - Gradual Civilization Act
placed FNMI peoples in a separate, inferior legal category than other citizens

1867 - BNA Act made First Nations a "responsibility" of the federal gov't

until 1960, First Nations were not allowed to vote unless they gave up their status
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