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Artificial skin

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Frederick Attard

on 3 January 2013

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Transcript of Artificial skin

Frederick Attard
B.Sc. Biomedical Engineering Artificial Skin What is Artificial Skin? Main Challenges Human Skin Improvements introduced Review and Conclusion Artificial Skin is usually implanted on persons that for some reason or another, would damage the dermis part of the skin.
Further studies on Intelligent Artificial skin can give a new sense to people with such 'disability'.
Intelligent Artificial skin is widely used on Robotics. This improves our lives since Robots are made to make our life easier.
Future studies and works could connect the Intelligent Artificial skin to Human Neural System. This would be a big break through since it would restore full sense for people needing this form of implant. The human skin is the largest organ in the body.
It covers and lines the whole body. It also protects the organs and all the body systems from bacteria and dust.
Keeps body heat inside the body
Skin aids in sensations
Production of Vitamin D HUMAN SKIN References Pictures Information & Reviews http://www.osovo.com/diagram/skindiagram.htm
http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v9/n10/full/nmat2861.html Dermis HUMAN SKIN Contains the major part of the alive cells of the skin.
It is a form of connective tissue.
Matrix of connective tissue is mainly Collagen, Elastin and Glycosaminoglycan.
Cannot be reproduced. Epiermis It is the top layer of the skin
It is divided in 5 other layers. The top 2 layers are composed of dead cells and are shedded approximately every 2 weeks
The other layers basically have the function of producing other cells and moving up to the top layers. Artificial Skin Artificial skin as stated by its own name is skin which is grown outside the body and later implanted.
Most common Artificial skin used for Humans is grown in a laboratory from real skin.
A vast study is underway to producing an intelligent artificial skin which can sense touch as real skin does.
Most intelligent artificial skin studies are based on Capacitive concepts. Capacitive Artificial skin Capacitive artificial skin works on a very simple concept: Capacitance.
Generally, the skin would be composed of a soft gel-like material together with at least 2 metal plates as electrodes. When the skin would be touched, the metal plates distance between them would change thus even charge and capacitance. Through micro-controller and an interface, one could know the exact force and coordinates of the touch. http://micro.seas.harvard.edu/papers/IEEESensors12_Park.pdf
Michael D. Johnson, Human Biology Concepts and Current issues, Sixth Edition, 2011. Other forms of Artificial skin "The capacitive touch sensor works like this: There are two conductive parallel plates. When one or both are pressed, the distance between them gets smaller, increasing the capacitance of the sensor. "
LOUIS BERGERON Capacitive Artificial skin Several other forms of Artificial skin use different variables for sensing. Such variables include optics or resistance (pressure).
Optical Artificial skin uses refraction and diffraction of light waves to determine the position of touch. The main challenge for this type of Skin is the Gel like material to be used since it hes to have the ability to have light waves pass through.
Resistive Skin on the other side generally uses a type of pressure sensors to determine the touch. One of the main challenges presented by Artificial Skin arises from the material to be Bio- compatible and with the right and wished for properties.
This problem thus induces another one. I.e. the cost of such material.
Another challenge is the durability and reliability of Artificial skin. Up until now, Artificial skin is implanted just for temporary period.
Another big problem of Intelligent Artificial skin is that although it can sense touch, the human being cannot feel pain and thus it can be dangerous. Vast improvements have been made on Intelligent Artificial skin. Most work is done on Capacitive form of Artificial Skin since it is the most reliable. This is because since the most common material for inducing capacitance is of semi liquid form, it is thus deformable and can be used to form parts of the body skin. However, the materials used are expensive to fabricate and also problems regarding body toxicity may arise.
Optical Intelligent Artificial Skin can be not as reliable as wished. this is because of external light sources may interfere and not be precise. Also, there is a big challenge in finding a suitable gel like material.
A resistive Intelligent Artificial skin on the other hand can be considered to be not so reliable since it will have a low resolution for touch sensing and also difficult to form since it might be bulky. "In spite of their deformability, these example sensing technologies are not truly stretchable and also cannot remain functional at very large strains."
[http://people.seas.harvard.edu/~ylpark/publications/Park_Sensors11.pdf] Latest Artificial skin From Harvard, a highly strain resistance and deformable Artificial sensor was developed. This is based on hyperelastic strain sensors and pressure sensors.
This was done by producing a deformable pressure sensor as shown below. the pressures sensor was made out of with embedded micro-channels filled with a liquid metal: eutectic gallium-indium(EGaIn).
This Artificial Skin is the best approach to make an artificial skin that provides touch sensing capability with a highly soft and stretchable material and an embedded liquid conductor.
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