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Baudrillard's Hyperreality Theory
Transcript of Baudrillard's Hyperreality Theory
What is real? Terrain Baudrillard's Theoretical Orientation and the Roots of Hyperreality Hyperreality Quick examples Disney land's simulated submarine ride
Air-brushed images of women/men
Disney land's Mississippi Boat Tour Marxian Critique of the commodity form
Contextualized in contemporary capitalist contradictions
Use value and exchange value has become outmoded Reality? Map What implications does this carry? People prefer the hyperreal
People believe they live in real Planned programming of production
Capitalism generates semiotic codes
Shift from exchange value to sign value Postmodernism Critique of Positivism Decentered subject Fragmentation Positivism - information derived from sensory experience, logical and mathematical treatments and reports of such data, are together the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge Some of the dangers of positivism Atomic bombs
Hitler's human experiments
Cameras used to survey law abiding citizens Truth Modernism - looked to achieve the so-called objective Truth Postmodernism - truth is one of many truths that frame the world Challenges the taken-for-granted claims of how society has created worldviews Individual does not "live" a holistic, planned existence but, rather, "lives" several discourses or roles imposed on him/her from without. They emphasize fragmentations, discontinuities and chaos, rather than the order, coherence and simplicity characterizing the modernist philosophy. New political economy creates "a general code of abstraction" Circulation and exchange of signs in the regulated market of sign value Transnational capitalist
consumption communities Goods Signs Images Services Hyperrealities/Mediascapes Constantly yet subtly communicate and spread new ideologies New regions and sites of shared cultural consciousness Transnational Corporate Planning Capital
Consumption Conceals and manipulates the historical contradictions Capital's new relationship with production/consumption Production of Demand Forms and substances of society itself Individual Desires Productive Forces Mass of Atomized Individuals Episodic Conductors mediating packaged meanings in the corporate marketplace (2 Luke). Silent majority of the masses are no longer representable in political or social terms The mass only exists at points of convergence with the media and marketplace Historical resistance of the masses is turned into hyperconformity Accept and redirect everything into the spectacular without requiring any other coding Transformation of the Masses Quest to authentic the self A new reality based logic based upon simulation rather than representation constitutes the dominant organizing principle of this new era Hyperreality The simulacra now constitute pure simulations by substituting a play of signs for reality itself. It has been severed from reality altogether and become a simulacrum, a simulation of a simulation of a simulation It began to resemble “the absence of a profound reality” It evolved to conceal and “denature” reality Early Western history the sign reflected “a profound reality” The Progression of the sign and the creation of simulacra Media and the new power of the sign Proliferation of media images through countless new mediums of information Unhinges the traditional metaphorical relations between the map and what can be regarded as the "real terrain" The generation of models of "a real" without an origin or a reality Simulation becomes the main operating principle of this information order Definitions and Assumptions The forces of production control and orchestrate the world of consumption
Baudrillard saw the consumption of objects as a kind of language
Predominantly about signs rather than goods
Code: a system of rules that allows us to understand signs and how they relate to one another
Simulations: fake processes, experiences, or signs that increasingly dominate the contemporary world
Prosumption: Produce and consume simultaneously
Hyperreal: entirely simulated and, as a result, more real than real, more beautiful than beautiful, and truer than true
(Ritzer 2010: 244-256) Hyperreal: entirely simulated and, as a result, more real than real, more beautiful than beautiful, and truer than true All maintain and reproduce the hyperreal The liquidation of all referentials as the artificial restructures the systems of signs The sign now acts as a valueless free radical capable of bonding anywhere in any exchange The process of simulation turns all representations into simulacra taken for Hyperreality Research and Application Politics in Hyperreality Charles Fox and Hugh Miller explore how hyperrealities "crowd out" the public discourse "Plastic disposable reifications": rapid succession of simulacra, simulations, and hyperreal signs
Symbolic politics or politics of distraction
Spinners spinning spin, sound bites, and no order/ranking/linearity
"Three strikes and you're out," "zero tolerance," "war on drugs,"
"Get government off your back and out of your pocket"
Crime is down even though people feel less safe Hyperreality of Theme Parks Casey Kelly and Kristen Hoerl explore Genesis in Hyperreality at the creation museum Simulations of Biblical events in a scientific context
Asking questions about objects and processes that are scientifically agreed upon "fossils don't come with name tags"
Joe and Kim as commentators that guide the curator's desired hyperreality Hyperreality at Disney's Wilderness Lodge Implications and Ideas for Future Research Hyperreality of food
Hyperreality of material Theoretical Developments Bert Olivier explores hyperrealities as he puts forth the concept and theory of mediated social behavior Behavior that seems to be related to the reception of media images
Culture dominated by a weakening distinction between images and reality
Freud's theory of the 'primary process' regarding hallucinatory wish-fulfillments' Hyperrealities Abroad Matthew Allen experienced and reported on the hyperrealities of the Japanese Media The fact that he spoke Japanese transformed him from a professional to a media star
He explores how the media legitimates the images which are created
Images of Allen (geinojin or public performer) and the realities of Allen
Human interests and the eccentric nature of the foreigner
"tonight we have a fascinating look at a most unusual foreigner in a most unusual environment...and would you believe it - he speaks the local dialect Japanese! Be sure to see it" (Pogell 2011) Allen, Matthew. "The media, postmodernism and anthropology in the field." Australian Journal Of Anthropology 4, no. 1 (February 1993): 1.
Botz-Bornstein, Thorsten. "CONFUCIANISM, PURITANISM, AND THE TRANSCENDENTAL: CHINA AND AMERICA." Protosociology: An International Journal Of Interdisciplinary Research 28, (December 2011): 155-172.
Gane, Mike. 1999. "BATHOS OF TECHNOLOGY AND POLITICS IN FOURTH ORDER SIMULACRA." Angelaki: Journal Of The Theoretical Humanities 4, no. 2: 75.
Giesler, Markus. n.d. "Consuming Cyborgs: Researching Posthuman Consumer Culture." Advances In Consumer Research 31, no. 1: 400-402.
Kelly, Casey Ryan, and Kristen E. Hoerl. 2012. "GENESIS IN HYPERREALITY: LEGITIMIZING DISINGENUOUS CONTROVERSY AT THE CREATION MUSEUM." Argumentation & Advocacy 48, no. 3: 123-141.
LaTouche, Jason. 2011. "My Real Imaginary Friends: iCarly and the Power of Hyperreality." Americana (1553-8931) 10, no. 1: 2.
Luke, Timothy W. 1991. "Power and politics in hyperreality: The critical project of Jean Baudrillard." Social Science Journal 28, no. 3: 347.
Michaels, Paula A. 2008. "If the Subaltern Speaks in the Woods and Nobody's Listening, Does He Make a Sound?." Slavic Review 67, no. 1: 81-83.
Olivier, Bert. 2000. "Freud and the question of mediated social behaviour." Society In Transition 31, no. 2: 163.
Pelzer, Peter. 2007. "The Futility of Excess, or The Displaced World of Rules and Regulations." Culture & Organization 13, no. 2: 157-169.
Pogell, Sarah. 2011. "'The Verisimilitude Inspector': George Saunders as the New Baudrillard?." Critique 52, no. 4: 460-478.
Solomon, Michael R. n.d. "Realer than Real: Retail Hyperreality and the Encoding of 'Authentic' Cultural Symbolism." Advances In Consumer Research 28, no. 1: 397.
Steinberg, Shirley R., and Joe L. Kincheloe. 1998. "Privileged and getting away with it: The cultural studies of white, middle-class youth." Studies In The Literary Imagination 31, no. 1: 103.
Zompetti, Joseph P., and Mary Anne Moffitt. 2008. "Revisiting Concepts of Public Relations Audience Through Postmodern Concepts of Metanarrative, Decentered Subject, and Reality/Hyperreality." Journal Of Promotion Management 14, no. 3/4: 275-291. References