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Earth's History and Stucture

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by

Matthew Lane

on 22 September 2015

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Transcript of Earth's History and Stucture

Earth formed around 4.6 billion years ago
Earth's History
Earth's History and Structure
Accretion is the slow growth of a planet by the forces of gravity
Accretion
As more rocks collided with Earth the heat from the friction caused Earth to melt
Molten Earth
Layers of Earth
Structure of Earth
The crust is Earth's outer solid shell
Made of solid rock, also called lithosphere
Cool and not very dense
Made of plates floating on the upper layer of the mantle called asthenosphere
Crust and Mantle
The outer core is Earth's liquid layer
Mostly iron with nickle and cobalt
Even denser and hotter than the mantle
The Core
Earth grew from a nebula, which is a cloud of gas and dust in space
The nebula begins to spin, particles collide, become larger, and gravity pulls more particles together
This creates a growing planet called a protoplanet
The mantle is Earth's largest layer
Mostly plastic solid rock
Sublayers have different densities
Hotter and denser than the crust
Heat causes large convection
currents that make the mantle
flow and drive plate tectonics
The inner core is Earth's densest layer
Solid iron with some nickle and cobalt
Highest pressure means highest density and temperature
Spins very fast
The two layers of spinning metal create Earth's magnetic field
Protects Earth from the radiation of space
Earth's Interior
We live on Earth's top layer, the crust
Increasing pressure prevents us from digging deeper than 6 miles into the crust
Data about Earth's average density and studying earthquakes show us what the other layers are like
High pressure causes temperature and
density of Earth to increase with depth
Earth's history is broken down into different sections
Eras are broken down by the history of life
Eons are the largest

Periods are the shortest
Precambrian
Earth is formed
Planet is barren
The first life forms
Bacteria evolve
Paleozoic
Ocean Animals and plants evolve
Life moves to land
Insects evolve
Pangaea breaks up/mass extinction
Mesozoic
Dinosaurs evolve
Age of reptiles
Birds evolve
A meteor hits the Earth
Cenozoic
Age of mammals
Ice ages
Humans evolve
The modern age
Small particles of ash and dust are pulled toward larger pieces dust and rock.
Particles will collide and a planet will grow
The liquid Earth naturally formed a sphere
Denser liquids like iron sank deeper into the Earth forming a series of layers
Static and gravitational forces pull material together until the planet stabilizes
This deep core drill is
designed to dig deeper into
the earth than any other in
an attempt to take a sample of the mantle
Pressure increases the deeper you go into the Earth because there is more material is pushing down on you
We know what the inside of the Earth is made of because Earthquake waves travel through different material at different speeds. If we know how fast the waves travel we know the density of what they are traveling through
Early Earth
The early Earth was nothing like it is today
It was a desert and volcanic planet

There was no water, oxygen or life
Eventually, comets full of ice and rock hit the Earth.

They melted once they hit
giving Earth its water
Comets are made ice and rock. As they move closer to the sun the ice melts to form the comet's tail
Full transcript