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Sophie's World

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by

Cole Rieger

on 22 February 2017

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Transcript of Sophie's World

Sophie's World: Marx and Darwin
Karl Marx
Marx believed that the natural resources of a society determined what the society produced and what type of society it was. Those who had control of production determined societal norms, and those people were the most powerful.
Marx believed that there will always be conflict between two classes of people. During the time of Marx, he said it was between the “capitalists” and the “workers”.
He believed that change is only possible by revolution.
Alberto calls for a new chapter.
History of Marx
Karl Marx was a German-born scientist, philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Born in Trier to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy.
Karl Marx
Hilde talks to some family friends, then goes back to reading the story.
Sophie gets a letter from the UN Battalion, which has 2 lines of poetry that Sophie doesn’t understand
Later when Sophie is going to meet Alberto, she runs into Ebenezer Scrooge.
Alberto tells Sophie that Karl Marx was a historical materialist. He was a practical person and his philosophy reflected this.
He believed that the economy is what caused change in society.
History of Darwin
Darwin’s 1859 book, “On the Origin of Species” established his theory of evolution, and within years, it was accepted as fact.
History of Darwin
Charles Darwin was an English biologist, naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
He established the theory that all species of life descended over time from common ancestors.
His theory was created based upon a branching pattern of evolution resulting from his theory of natural selection.
Charles Darwin

Hilde is reading on a Sunday morning and Noah from the Bible comes to see her and gives her a picture of the animals that he had on the ark.
Alberto says that Marx, Darwin, and Freud were all naturalists.
Darwin's major ideas were that all plants and animals had evolved from earlier forms and that this process occurs through natural selection.
He is credited today with the mainstream theory of evolution and natural selection, as well as social Darwinism.
This was very controversial in the time of Darwin, because it contradicted creationism which was pretty widely believed.
He believed that animals that are best suited for the environment that they are in will survive.
Darwin shifted a lot of people’s worldview, because now people saw humans as descendants from animals.
Alberto says that life is a “lottery”, and that we can only see the winning combinations.
We see the species who have survived, but we do not see the extinct ones, or the losers. (Which in this analogy are the majority)
Alberto says that no one really knows how life started.
Darwin guessed that a random group of elements suddenly randomized into the first living cell.
Charles Darwin
History of Marx
As an adult, Marx became stateless and spent much of his life in London, England, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto. His work has since influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history.
History of Marx
Marx's theories about society, economics and politics are known as Marxism.
The ruling class or upper class was seen at conflict with the working class.
Marx argued that capitalism facilitated social relations and ideology through commodification, inequality, and the exploitation of labor.
Marx believed that capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism.
Marx actively fought for implementation of socialism, arguing that the working class should carry out organized revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation.
Marx had a huge influence in his time and throughout history, and continues to have influence today through his ideals and writings. He even had a huge impact in the Russian revolution via proxy in Vladimir Lenin.
Full transcript