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CONSTITUENTS AND CATEGORIES OF METHODS
Transcript of CONSTITUENTS AND CATEGORIES OF METHODS
“an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural”
Antony, 1963, p.65
“a particular trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective”
It comprises the classroom techniques and practices which are consequences of particular approaches and designs.
Richards and Rogers (1985)
It specifies the relationship of theories of language and learning to both the form and function of instructional materials and activities in instructional settings.
(Richards & Rodgers, 1982: 154)
“A set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language and the nature of language teaching and learning. It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught. It states a point of view, a philosophy, an article of faith…”
(Antony, 1963: 63-64)
Approach: assumptions, beliefs and theories about the nature of language and the nature of language learning which operate as axiomatic constructs or reference points and provide a theoretical foundation for what language teachers ultimately do with learners in classrooms.
Richards and Rodgers (1982)
Principles are defined as a set of insights derived from theoretical and applied linguistics, cognitive psychology, information sciences, and other allied disciplines that provide theoretical bases for the study of language learning, language planning, and language teaching.
Kumaravadivelu, B. 2008.
Procedures may be operationally defined as a set of teaching strategies adopted/adapted by the teacher in order to accomplish the stated and unstated, short- and long-term goals of language learning and teaching in the classroom.
Kumaravadivelu, B. 2008.