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Transcript of MOTIVATION
Motivations and Attitudes
Two case studies
Case Study 1: Chinese
Family factors on LM
-more extensive network for language use than the nuclear family
- The presence of non-English speakers: Conducive for LM.
Especially important for Australian born family members/second generation. Usually non-English speaking family members are older family members and play an important role
- Overseas visitors: Cheaper travel means family members from home country can visit (usually have limited or no knowledge of English) providing more interaction in the community
- Overseas visiting: traveling to home country, especially for children and adolescents, provides the opportunity for immersion in the community language. Also gives them a chance to form peer groups for continued use of the community language.
- Safe environment: The family provides a safe environment for the Community Language’s use and practice. It is easier the maintain the community language in the cohesive in-group of the family.
Motivation is one of the key determining factors in second language learning and HL maintenance
"Ensure that community-based programs recognise and address cultural and linguistic diversity."
Australian Department of Education website
Additional factors on rates of LM include:
-Heritage Cultural Languages (HCL) program Ontario, 1997
-aims at "promoting a sense of self-esteem and a fuller understanding of respective cultural backgrounds"
-integrated or non-integrated (2 x 1.5hr classes per week)
-Fierce debate: HL education private matter, non-legitimacy, after-hours reinforce 'second-class' status, implied lack of prestige
178 "non-for-profit" Community Language Schools in Victoria
They teach more than 40 languages to approximately 35,000 students across the state in after-hours classes
Overseas migration contributed to 60% of total population growth in 2012. Sufficient?
Is race a factor for language maintenance in Australian culture?
& political influences.
"the relative political power and influence of a particular language group...can have a profound impact in determining the importance of LM. The relative value and importance attached to a particular community language by the mainstream society may change over time so that language may become a key factor in ethnic mobilization and lead to decreased LS."
Korean student's perceived the overall view of the Korean community as negative, lack of prestige stemming from university instruction
Ethnolinguistic identities of immigrant children constructed in family, strengthened by ethnic community networks; size and activity; influence of in-group peers.
Different language used by educational/government institutions in host country, school age out-group peer relationships increase and LM weakens
Assumptions based on ethnicity that a person will be fluent in their HL can often be a very deterring factor (Kim & Lee, 2008)
Shiow-Huey Luo, Richard L. Wiseman, "Ethnic language maintenance among Chinese immigrant children in the United States", International Journal of Intercultural Relations; 24 (2000) pp. 307-324
English is not the official language of the U.S, the U.K or Australia
Until early 1880's, language ideologies and resulting policies/practices were relatively tolerant towards European languages (Doeer & Lee, 2013)
However, Asian and Native American languages were seldom tolerated
Asian children not permitted in mainstream education, language maintenance a responsibility of the community
Native American children taken from homes and placed in English-only boarding schools
Instruction of Native American languages was forbidden by law
Often HL speakers are placed in classrooms with foreign language learners: teachers ill-equipped, "language shyness" (Krashen, 1998)
Overall, a distinct apathy by mainstream institutions to adequately address ethnolinguistic society
Doeer & Lee (2013) argue the label 'heritage language learner' is a politically charged term
Foucault's conception of knowledge and power:
- 18th C. institutions, liberalism quest for knowledge; relations of dominance formed between those who came to acquire knowledge and those who were the object of that knowledge.
Research situates HLL as the object of knowledge - Why we need a common label to discuss such diverse situations? What are we doing, by trying to find common ground for totally different issues?
Of the 9,581 schools that exist in Australia today, only nine of them offer indigenous bilingual education
That is compared to one in nine Indigenous people aged 15+ years that speak an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander language as their main language at home
Over one-third (35%) of Indigenous children aged 4-14 years spoke, or spoke some words of, an Indigenous language in 2008. (ABS, 1999)
There are 12 bilingual schools in Victoria, 90% of students learning a LOTE learn either Japanese, Italian, Indonesian, French, German or Chinese.
School-related (ie. grades)
personal fulfillment-related motivations
heritage ties-related motivations
Within this motivation, factors for learning the heritage language include:
Connection to one's roots and family
Definition of one’s ethnic identity
Communication or with other members of the HL
Representation of ethnic pride
Motivations for LM
–Studies have shown family is one of the most important factors in of motivation for LM (Lee & Kim, 2008; Norton 2000)
-Supportive policies and educational programs are usually only beneficial to LM if language acquisition is initiated in the family. This is important as the family provides a practice ground for the community langauge’s continual use.
-Attitudes of second generation can be influenced by desires to know more about their heritage, communicate with elders, or desire to distance oneself from the HL community due to:
disinterest, age, status of the ethnic minority within wider community, under-valuing of HL culture or greater affiliation with host country culture (ie. more friendships experiences in L2, influence of media - especially in more modern, Westernised society)
Influenced by White Australia Policy, ESL and assimilation (also valued by migrants)
Fraser govt late 1970's, fear of creating ethnic enclaves
Second gen. migrants show 'symbolic' ethnic identity, interest groups
Equality, in outcomes not just in opportunity, cultural pluralism > democratic pluralism (Jayasuriya, 1990)
"an indicator of the rising concern and desire to manage minority linguistic communities at a time of anxiety over the global flow of immigrants, job opportunities and ideologies." (p. 27)
Australian Bureau of Statistics
-National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey, 2008
-Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2012
Neriko Doerr, Kiri Lee. "Constructing the heritage language learner : knowledge, power, and new subjectivities" (Boston: Walter de Gruyer Inc), 2013.
Bonny Norton, "Mothers, Migration and Language Learning", in Indentity and Language Learning: Gender, Ethnicity and Eductional Change. (Singapore: Pearson Education Inc.) 2000.
Jin Souck Lee, Hae-Young Kim. "Heritage Language Learners' Attitudes, Motivations and Instructional Needs: The case of post-secondary Korean Language Learners" (2008) pp. 159-185.
Case Study 2: German
Chinese migration fluctuated in past, from 1986 till 1991 Chinese ranked as the third largest group behind the Italian and Greek communities.
Second World War discrimination decreases; Whitlam govt. 1972 changes to imigration policy >> more migrants from China, Hong Kong and Malaysia
Simply based on numbers alone, the large number of Chinese speakers enhances the strength of language maintenance with in Australia.
A study in the mid 80s shows Chinese as an intermediary group in terms of language maintanence with a maintenance rate of 83.9%
Theory of "cultural distance": Besides intermarriage, the degree of similarity to the host society in values, attitudes and cultural mores is an important factor in determining the extent of language drift across generations. (Jayasuriya, 1990)
Familiarity with Anglo-Australian culture is often accompanied by a willingness and ability to assimilate; language shift inevitable
socio-religious/philosophical differences b/w Chinese and Australian culture may have contributed to strong LM
Lack of English also acts to increase reliance on HL among new migrants, especially if they are in large numbers (over 50% of Chinese speakers in Australia settled in Melbourne and Sydney)
For many Chinese, the Chinese language itself is seen as the core of their ethnic identity.
Eg. more likely to be influenced by Taoist or Confusion philosophy, highly dissimilar to western thought
The pattern of interaction that occurs within Chinese families also provides an environment that is conducive to language maintenance.
Extended family culture still thrives in modern chinese households.
Often grandparents or older generation cares for younger children while parents work.
Older generations tend to live with their families.
This interaction with extended families and older generation members with a lack of English provides younger generations of Australian-Chinese greater opportunities to maintain their community language.
Compared to Chinese, German has a relatively low level of maintenance in Australia and other English speaking countries.
(Shaberg & Barkhuizen, 1998) three immigrant German families in South Africa about language maintenance and their attitudes towards their own community language.
In German community, the shift to English is linked to the non-observance of German cultural and linguistics patterns in the family domain.
Family is generally nuclear, grandparents and other family members play less of a role in child-rearing than in Chinese families.
The status of German in the german community and the general community is seen as lower than the official language, English.
Contrast to Chinese case where Chinese has quite a high status among community
Mixed-marriages are also a factors in these cases, where if a mixed-marriage did occur, German culture and language were less likely to be passed onto the next generation.
Assimilation and language shift easier because of a sense of less cultural distance. Families found it relatively easy to engage with dominant language and culture in society. (i.e. for reasons such as similar underlying philosophy of both societies, as well as religious beliefs)
Eg. Dutch greatest language shift in Australia (67% first generation speaking English at home) - ABS (1999)
Feuerverger, G. "On the Edges of the Map: A study of Heritage Language Teachers in Toronto". Teaching and Teacher Education, 1997, Vol.13(1), pp.39-53
D. L. Jayasuriya. "Language and culture in Australian public policy : some critical reflections" (Perth: University of Western Australia. Dept. of Social Work and Social Administration.) 1988.