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MLA Documentation (1302 Online)

The University of Texas of the Permian Basin
by

Clark Moreland

on 12 January 2018

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Transcript of MLA Documentation (1302 Online)

MLA Documentation
When Do You Cite?
When quoting any words that are not your own.
Quoting
means to repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks.
When summarizing facts and ideas from a source.
Summarizing
means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own words.
When paraphrasing a source.
Paraphrasing
means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words.
Disciplinary Style
Modern Language Association (
MLA
): English, Humanities
American Psychological Association (
APA
): Social Sciences (Psychology, Sociology)
Chicago/Turabian
: History, Publishing
Council of Science Editors (
CSE
): Applied General Sciences

Why Do We Cite Sources?
To lend authority and
ethos
to our work.
To allow readers to cross-reference sources easily.
To provide a consistent language for writing papers within certain disciplines.
To acknowledge source material we have borrowed, to avoid…
Which One is not Common Knowledge (AKA, needs citation)?
Barack Obama is the President of the United States.
Why Does Plagiarism Matter?
The correct citation of your sources is serious business!
If you plagiarize, even inadvertently, you may fail your class or be expelled.
Plagiarism in your professional career can result in being sued, fired, and publicly embarrassed.
We'll come back to this subject later.
Created by: Clark Moreland
Modified: 23 January 2017
Composition II Online
The University of Texas of the Permian Basin

For Comparison's Sake
MLA
Fisher, Benjamin F. “Poe and the Gothic Tradition.”
The
Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe,
edited by Kevin J. Hayes, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 72-91.
APA
Fisher, B.F. (2002). Poe and the Gothic tradition. In K.J.
Hayes (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to Edgar Allan Poe (pp.72-91). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Chicago (Author-Date Style)
Benjamin F. Fisher. “Poe and the Gothic Tradition.” In
The
Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe
, edited by Kevin J. Hayes, 72-91. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
CSE
Fisher BF. 2002. Poe and the Gothic tradition. In Hayes KJ,
editor. The Cambridge companion to Edgar Allan Poe. New York: Cambridge Univ Pr. 72-91.
The Modern
Language Association
The MLA is “an organization of teachers and scholars founded in 1883, when the modern languages were just beginning to gain a place in the college curriculum alongside the classical languages – ancient Greek and Latin” (Gibaldi xv).
MLA now has over 30,000 teachers and scholars in its association.
Modern Language Association of America.
The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
. 8th edition, MLA, 2016.
Dunagan Call No.:
PN203 .G53 2016
Other Resources
Your grammar handbook
MLA’s website https://style.mla.org
The Purdue Online Writing Lab: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/11
Cornell University’s website: http://www.library.cornell.edu/node/148
Ask me for help!
A Tourist or a Scholar?
EasyBib sites are like using online language translators.
“Star-Spangled Banner” in Spanish
Fluency = credibility.
Here is what your essay should look like in MLA format:
12 pt. Times New Roman or Arial font
1 inch margins
Double spaced throughout
No cover sheets
Begin on the left side with:
Your name
The course designation
The date that you complete and turn in the essay
A clever and interesting title at the top
Essays must also be paginated at the top right corner of each page.
From the Latin word
plagiarius
— kidnapper
MLA defines plagiarism as “using another person’s ideas, information, or expressions without acknowledging that person’s work” (52).

Plagiarism!
Don’t fall into the trap of plagiarism! If the idea or information you are using did not originate in your own mind, cite it!
Do I Cite When...
Yes, Cite It!
When you are using or referring to somebody else’s words or ideas from a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV program, movie, Web page, computer program, letter, advertisement, or any other medium.
When you use information gained through interviewing another person.
When you copy the exact words or a "unique phrase" from somewhere.
When you reprint any diagrams, illustrations, charts, and pictures.

Nah, It's Cool
When you are writing your own experiences, your own observations, your own insights, your own thoughts, your own conclusions about a subject.
When you are using "
common knowledge
" — folklore, common sense observations, shared information within your field of study or cultural group.
When you are compiling generally accepted facts.
When you are writing up your own experimental results.

Quoted from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_plagiar.html.
Quotation
Paraphrase
Summary
Barack Obama was formerly a senator from Illinois.
Barack Obama's favorite food is broccoli.
Barack Obama's favorite food is, believe it or not, broccoli, saying in an interview last year, "you can ask my staff. It is one of my staples" (Jackson 3).
MLA Documentation
In-Text Citation
Works Cited
In-text citation designates the name of the author of the source, and the page number, in the body of the text.

A Works Cited lists, at the end of the paper, each source you have cited in the text.

Examples of In-Text Citation
Even though the author blames Charles Comiskey for the 1919 “Black Sox” Scandal, he still admits that Comiskey was “one of the first imaginative and creative minds in professional baseball” (Asinof 49).
Rules for In-Text Citation
If you introduce source materials into your paper, you must acknowledge the
author
and
page number
of that material in the text of your paper.
This information can either be given in your sentence, or in a
parenthetical citation
that comes after the quotation, paraphrase, or summary.
If you are using more than one text from an author, you must also mention the
title
of the particular work, either in the text or in the parenthetical citation.
Cite
every
borrowed sentence.
Paraphrasing with In-Text Citations
Example: As Brenda Wineapple has pointed out, Miles Coverdale may be the first antihero of modern literature (250).
Review
MLA Style determines the scholarly “language” which we use to communicate and cite sources to an audience.
Whether quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing a source, scholarly writers must always cite sources properly to avoid plagiarism.
Each source that you integrate into your text must be cited in at least two ways: the author of the source, and the page number where it was found.
Let's See How You Did...
In 1999, Lynn Z. Bloom identified the most frequently reprinted authors and titles in essay anthologies, which overwhelmingly form the canon of texts which First-Year Composition students read. Martin Luther King Jr. placed eighth on the list (
"The Essay Canon" 428
). The ascendancy of his writing into the composition anthology canon is remarkable. The two texts by King on the list were composed in 1963: “I Have a Dream,” the most renowned piece of American oratory since “The Gettysburg Address,” and “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” a longer and fuller explanation of King’s belief in the power of nonviolence and the moral obligation to disobey unjust segregation laws. First anthologized only four years after its composition in a Birmingham jail cell (the letter was subsequently reprinted in King’s book
Why We Can’t Wait
in 1964), the “manifesto masquerading as a letter” (
Bloom, “Witnessing” 14
) was already being hailed in 1969 by a composition scholar as an important text that high school and college composition instructors should be familiar with. (
Phillips 4
).


Author Page
Lawrence Buell admits that Emerson comes as close as he ever did to “an all-out endorsement of American manifest destiny” in “The Young American” (
Emerson: The Scholar
250).

Author Page
Title of work (only when multiple sources by one
author
Paraphrases must still be cited just like quotations – acknowledging the author and page number of the source.
Example...
What Do You Observe?
How to Do a
Works Cited List
Periodicals
Books
Films
Online Sources
General Information
The Works Cited page comes at the very end of your essay. It only includes information that you
cite
in the essay; it is different from a
bibliography
, which includes sources that you might have looked at, but are not actually cited in the text.
Just like in the rest of your paper, the Works Cited Page should be:
12 pt. font
Times New Roman or Arial
1 Inch Margins
Paginated just like the rest of your paper.
The first line of each citation starts at the left margin. Indent the second and any subsequent lines for that particular citation ½ inch. This is called a
hanging indention
.
Arrange each citation alphabetically by the author’s last name. If the author is not known, alphabetize by the title, “ignoring “any initial A, An, or The” at the beginning of the title (
MLA Handbook
147).

Byatt, A.S.
Possession: A Romance
. Vintage, 1990.
Lester, James D., and James D. Lester, Jr.
Writing Research
Papers: A Complete Guide
. 11th edition, HarperCollins, 2005.
Tolstoy, Leo.
War and Peace
. Oxford University Press, 1998.
Byatt, A.S
.
Possession: A Romance
.
Vintage
,
1990
.
Lester, James D., and James D.
Lester, Jr.
Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide
.
11th edition
,
HarperCollins
,
2005
.
Tolstoy, Leo.
War and Peace
.
Oxford
University Press,

1998
.
Editors
Tennyson, Alfred.
Tennyson’s Poems: A Norton Critical Edition
.
Edited by Robert W. Hill, Jr., W.W. Norton & Co., 1999.

Tennyson, Alfred. “The Lady of Shalott.”
Tennyson’s Poems: A
Norton Critical Edition
, edited by Robert W. Hill, Jr., W.W. Norton & Co., 1999, pp. 41-45.
Tennyson, Alfred
.
Tennyson’s Poems: A Norton Critical Edition
.
Edited by Robert W. Hill, Jr.,
W.W. Norton & Co.,

1999
.

Tennyson, Alfred
. “
The Lady of Shalott
.”
Tennyson’s Poems: A
Norton Critical Edition
,
edited by Robert W. Hill, Jr.,
W.W. Norton & Co.,

1999
, pp. 41-45.
Magazine Articles
Heavens, Alan J
. “
Clever Levers: Grip It and
Rip It with These Three Smart-Jawed Tools.”
Popular Science
,

Aug. 2005,

pp. 11-14.
Scholarly Journal Articles
Dallal, Jenine Abboushi
.
“American Imperialism
UnManifest: Emerson’s ‘Inquest’ and Cultural Regeneration.”

American Literature,

vol. 73, no. 1
,
March 2001,
pp. 47-83.
It’s a Wonderful Life
.
Directed by Frank Capra, performances by
James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell,
RKO
,
1946
.
The Truman Show
.
Directed by Peter Weir, performances by
Jim Carrey, Laura Linney, Noah Emmerich, and Ed Harris, screenplay by Andrew Niccol,
Paramount
,
1998
.
Mobile and Unstable
“Print culture has developed standard reference tools (library catalogs, bibliographies, and so on) for locating published works. Electronic media, in contrast, so far lack agreed-on means of organizing works...
Website Citation
Sommers, Christina Hoff. “Feminism and Freedom.”
The American Spectator,
1 July 2008, www.spectator.org/42035_feminism-and-freedom.
Accessed 27 July 2016.
Mobile and Unstable
"...Moreover, electronic texts are not as fixed and stable as their print counterparts. References to electronic works therefore must provide more information than print citations generally offer” (
MLA Handbook,
6th edition, pp. 207-08).
Be Thorough!
Remember: Not all of the fields included in these slides will be applicable to your citation: many web pages do not have authors listed. If not, just go on to the next applicable field. However…
Scholarly Journal on a Database
Hansson, Heidi. “The Double Voice of Metaphor: A.S.
Byatt’s ‘Morpho Eugenia.’”
Twentieth Century Literature,
vol. 45, no. 4, Winter 1999, pp. 452-66.
JSTOR,
www.jstor.org/stable/441947.
Accessed 27 July 2016.
Sommers, Christina Hoff
.
“Feminism and Freedom.”
The American Spectator
,
1 July 2008
, www.spectator.org/42035_feminism-and-freedom
Accessed 27 July 2016.
Often this information is not on the page you are viewing. You may have to examine other pages as well. Look for the home page, and the pages just before or just after the page you are viewing. (Hint: Look for links about authorship and updates at the bottom of a web page).
Hansson, Heidi.
“The Double Voice of Metaphor: A.S.
Byatt’s ‘Morpho Eugenia.’”

Twentieth Century Literature
,
vol. 45, no. 4
,
Winter 1999
, pp. 452-66.
JSTOR
,
www.jstor.org/stable/441947.
Accessed 27 July 2016.
What about Page Numbers for Websites?
Most Web pages do not have page numbers. You are not required to give a page number if your material does not indicate pagination.
You may, however, cite paragraph numbers within your parenthetical note.
Example: (Guffy, par. 24).
Citing a Work with Multiple Authors
With multiple authors for a single work, list according to how they are presented on the title page (not necessarily in alphabetical order).
The first author’s name is reversed, but the remaining authors’ names are not.
With more than three authors, note the first author’s name (reversed), and add
et al
(“and others”).
Citing Multiple Works of an Author
When you use more than one work by the same author, give the author’s full name for the first citation and use --- (in place of the author’s name) for each additional work.
List the works in alphabetical order by the title.
Advice from a Guy who Knows...
Remember to always write down MLA information about your sources when you are reading them. This will save you a lot of time when you are compiling a Works Cited at the end of your essay.
Does this Cover Everything? No!
Even experienced MLA users like myself still have to occasionally reference the
MLA Handbook
. Also, the
MLA Handbook
is not totally comprehensive, especially with innovations like sources on mobile devices.
What to Do:
1. Consult the
MLA Handbook
.
2. Use common sense: what information is there, and what would be the most logical way to organize this information?
3. Ask me!
What Not to Do:
Wave the white flag. If you think you need to cite it, cite it, to the best of your ability!
YOU’RE DONE!!!!
You made it through the most boring lecture of all time! Congratulations!
Miscellany
Two authors: Hendrix, Jimi and David Crosby.
Three authors: Hendrix, Jimi, David Crosby, and John Lennon.
More than three authors: Hendrix, Jimi, et al.
Thoreau, Henry David.
Civil Disobedience.
Edited by
Paul Lauter, Houghton Mifflin, 2000.
---.
Walden: A Fully Annotated Edition
. Edited by Jeffrey
S. Cramer, Yale University Press, 2004.
Modern Language Association of America.
The MLA
Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
. 8th edition, MLA, 2016.
---.
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly
Publishing
. 2nd edition, MLA, 1998.
Lester, James D., and James D. Lester, Jr.
Writing
Research Papers: A Complete Guide
. 11th edition, Longman-Addison, 2005.
Purdue OWL. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide."
The Writing Lab, Purdue University, 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/.
Accessed 27 July 2016.
Works Cited
Now it's time to practice!
Containers
Author.

Title of Source.

Title of Container,

Other Contributors,

Version,

Number,

Publisher,

Publication Date

Location.
Containers
Author.

Title of Source.

Version,

Publisher,

Publication Date.
Containers
Author.

Title of Source.

Title of Container,

Other Contributors,

Publisher,

Publication Date

Location.
Author.

Title of Source.

Title of Container,

Number,

Publication Date

Location.
Containers
Pro-Tip:
Don't list publishers or editors for periodicals.
Title of Source.

Other Contributors,

Publisher,

Publication Date.
Containers
Pro-Tip:
Use common sense and think about what your reader needs to know.
Pro-Tip:
Most of the time with anthologized works, you still note the author’s name first, and put the editor’s name after the title of the anthology.
Title Formatting
Italicize Titles of...
Books:
The Woman in White
Periodical Titles:
English Literary History
,
Newsweek
Long Poems:
Paradise Lost
Plays and Operas:
The Importance of Being Earnest
Movies/TV Series:
Dawson’s Creek
Albums:
OK Computer
Paintings/Sculpture:
Mona Lisa
,
David
Ships:
Titanic
Put Quotation Marks Around...
Chapter Titles: “The Format of a Research Paper”
Essays: “Civil Disobedience”
Articles in Periodicals: “The No-Pesticide Revolution”
Short Poems: “Kubla Khan”
TV Episodes: “The Big Salad”
Titles of Web Pages: “Monday Morning Quarterback”
Pro-Tip:
If given a choice of publication dates, choose the most recent date.
Containers
Author.

Title of Source.

Title of Container,

Publication Date

Location.

Access Date.
Pro-Tip:
MLA does not require access dates for online sources, but I do. Give
two
dates for all online sources.
Container #1
Author.

Title of Source.

Title of Container,

Number,

Publication Date

Location.
Container #2
Title of Container,

Location.

Access Date.
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