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Historical Views of Abnormal Psychology

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Brook Fulton

on 4 September 2014

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Transcript of Historical Views of Abnormal Psychology

The Spread of Asylums
Modern Ideas
Eighteenth and Nineteenth
Centuries Moral Treatments

Historical Views of Abnormal Psychology
Medieval Theory
Time Period: Middle Ages - Renaissance

Early Middle Ages: Physicians believed Physical Trauma and Citizens believed in Demons
Treatment: None. Believed to be Incurable

Late Middle Ages: Witchcraft
Treatment: Torture. Hunting of "witches"
Attributed to: Depression, sleep deprivation, hallucinations or delusions

Psychic Epidemics : "Dance Frenzies"
Cause: Tarantula bites, spiritual possession or religious pratice to Greek god Dionysus
Treatment: Exorcism (when "possessed")
Conclusion: Mass Hysteria


Asylums
Time Period: 16th-18th century
Moral Treatment
Time Period: 18-19th century
Modern Perspectives
Knowledge advancements in the late 19th Century
Wilhelm Griesinger -
The Pathology and Therapy of Psychic Disorders
Emil Kraeplin
The Psychoanalytic Perspective
Franz Anton Mesmer - mesmerism
Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer -
On the Physical Mechanisms of Hysterical Phenomena
Behaviorism
Ivan Pavlov
classical conditioning and operant conditioning
Cognitive Perspective
Self-efficacy beliefs
Therapy: challenging patients' irrational beliefs
Deinstitutionalization
1960s - Patients' rights movement
Community mental health movement
Managed Care
Coordinated care
Problems with insurance
Ancient Theories
Medieval Theory
Ancient Abnormality
Time Period: Stone Age- Fall of Ancient Roman Empire
By: Brook Fulton,
11th-12th century: European hospitals began including
separate facilities for abnormal behavior
Later came mental hospitals and asylums with awful conditions:
-Held against their will
- Chained to walls
-No light or heat
- Filthy
-Poor food
Established/run by those who thought abnormal behavior = medical illness
Some patients exhibited to the public for a fee
Laws of protection
-Public and family
- First Act for Regulating Madhouses 1774
Stone age-- Trephination. Abnormal behavior was seen as the result of possesion by a spirit.
Ancient China-- Balance of Yin/Yang, movement of the Air inside of the body.
Ancient Mediterranean-- Hysteria (wandering Uterus), Four Humors: Blood, Phlegm, Yellow Bile, Black Bile. Four categories of abnormal behavior: Epilepsy, Mania, Melancholia, Brainfever.
Mental Hygiene Movement:
(Separation of people and nature)

The belief was that people's abormalities were brought on by stresses caused by drastic social changes


Medical Treatments:


Efforts made to restore dignity in asylums by Dorothea Dix and Philippe Pinel
Medical Treatments:
-Prayer
-Rest
-Relaxation
-Restoration of dignity

Cited material from:
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (10121). Looking at Abnormality. In (Ab)normal Psychology (Sixth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Full transcript