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Copy of Sentence Stress, Intonation, Phrasing, and Blending

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Khristine Joy Villar

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Sentence Stress, Intonation, Phrasing, and Blending

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Intonation
Intonation may be defined as the rise and fall of the voice in connected speech; it is the rising and falling of your voice when you speak.
Your pitch rises when you utter a stressed syllable. These show that stress and intonation are interrelated and that they are equally important to the speaker.

When you read and utter a long English sentence, you have to group the words in such a way that they convey a clear thought. For instance a single bar (/) indicates a short pause after a phrase, a double bar (//) indicates the medium pause, and the three bars (///) indicate a long pause.
Phrasing
Sentence Stress, Phrasing, Blending and Intonation
Sentence Stress
Read as you would a text message: I AM SORRY FOR ALL THE MISTAKES I’VE DONE TO YOU.
What do you notice about the sentence?
All words are stressed.
To achieve effective English rhythm, you should stress only some of the words in the sentence. In an English sentence, you should stress only the content words which include nouns, verbs, (except linking and auxiliary verbs), adjectives, adverbs, demonstratives, and interrogatives.

On the other hand, you are not supposed to stress the function words such as articles, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, linking verbs, and auxiliaries.
Practice reading the following sentences, and point out words that receive the sentence stress:
1. I’ll cross the bridge when I get there.
2. I can see you.
3. The coconut palm provides sweet-tasting milk and meat as well as wood and other building materials.
4. It was raining hard, and Metro Manila streets were flooded.
There are four levels of pitch in English. These are:
1.Extra High or Very High- used for strong emotions.
Ex: What a caTAStrophe!
2.High – used for stressed syllables that do not show strong emotions.
Ex: I am HAPpy for you.
3.Normal – used for syllables that are not given primary stress
Ex: I am happy for you.
4.Low – used for syllables that are uttered in lower pitch than those uttered in normal pitch.
Ex: Just sit down and relax.

The rising and falling pattern is used at the end of:
1.A simple statement of fact: Donna likes to SING and dance.
2.A simple command: Turn on the FAn.
3.An information question: What’s the PROBlem, Richard?

The rising pattern is used for:
1.A yes-or-no question: Are you ALRIGHT? Is tony in YOUR CLASS?
2.Comparison and contrast: The NEW house is bigger than the OLD one.
3.Series: James speaks FILIPINO, FRENCH, and ENGlish.
4.Direct address: Do this RIGht, JAMES?

Intonation in tag questions:
If the tag question is a statement of fact, use the rising-falling pattern.
Ex: You’re a PUP STUdent, AREN’T you?
If it’s really a genuine question, use rising pattern.
Ex: You’re a PUP STUdent, AREN’T YOU?

Let’s practice:
Hari- Hello, Mati, when did you com back from your native village?
Mati- Only yesterday.
Hari- I see, you are very fond of the country life.
Mati- Really I am very fond of it.
Hari- Why? What’s the charm of the country life?
Mati- I’m tired of the din and bustle of the town, of smoke, dirt and congestion. It’s calm and quite there. I get there fresh air and fresh food, fish, milk, fruit and vegetables. I get fresh vigour and energy.
Hari- It’s true. But comforts of life are waiting there-no electric light or fan, no good roads, no good conveyance, no good medical aid, no good school or college, no good society, no theater or cinema hall. How do you live there?
Mati- The villages are not to blame for that. We have neglected the villages so long. You know that the majority of our people live in the villages. Our country cannot prosper unless the villages are improved. Do you agree?
Hari- Yes, I do. But how can we improve the village?
Mati- Educated men should go and mix with the poor and illiterate people of the village, and spread education among them and teach them how to raise their standard of life. Beside, Government has duty to the villagers. Our National Government is doing that now. Villages are not so bad now as you think. In course of time, we shall find there all the amenities of the town.
Hari- Now I understand why you go to your native village during every long vacation.

Examples: I love you//Do you know that?///
The cookies and apples/ are my favorite.///
I have seen many men/ risk their lives for this.// And all I could say is…/// it’s horrible.///

Blending
In English, when you say a phrase, there is a need for you to say some words as if they were a single word.
Example: I love_it, can’t you_see_it?
I can_never go_there.
Apples_and mangoes.
Life_is never_easy.


Let’s practice:
The_intonation you_have/ when you_speak your native tongue/ is different from the_intonation you_ought to have/ when you_speak_English.// Basically,// the_English_intonation/ is_either_rising-falling/ or_rising.//
Let’s practice:
The_intonation you_have/ when you_speak your native tongue/ is different from the_intonation you_ought to have/ when you_speak_English.// Basically,// the_English_intonation/ is_either_rising-falling/ or_rising.//
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