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Unit 5: Lecture 2
Transcript of Unit 5: Lecture 2
Identify how and why civilizations and communities began to identify themselves as nations.
Compare and contrast the process of becoming a nation-state.
Political power shifting in Europe
Britain made itself the major model of an imperial power with a strong military & commercial base
Older powers (such as Austria and Russia) showed their age
autocratic traditions created increasing tension within their large empires
During 19th Century
people came to identify themselves as part of a NATION
forces drew them together (language, customs, cultural traditions, values, historical experiences, & sometimes religion
Unification of Germany
Kingdom of Prussia becoming more powerful after defeat of Napoleon
Otto von Bismarck (chancellor) - had a vision of united Germany
Series of wars with Denmark & Austria
Maneuvered France to declare war on Prussia
used this to unite all German domains to fight together - Victory for Prussia!
Bismarck proclaimed the birth of a German nation
Unification of Italy
Roman Catholic Church still had great influence
discouraged the growth of Italian nationalism
Garibaldi - leader of nationalistic movement in south
led military campaign
King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia - his prime minister (Count Camillo di Cavour) aligned with France to expel Austria from northern Italy
1870 - nation of Italy was proclaimed and Victor Emmanuel named its sovereign
By the 1830s, most of LA was made up of independent nations
Leaders of new nations hoped to create representative governments with freedom of commerce & protection of private property
However, they often feared their population was unprepared for self-rule
Early constitutions written to create order and representation...BUT voting restrictions regarding property and literacy were instituted
One problem with the formation of nations = minority groups
Often, minority groups within the nation did not fit the nation's identity
One example = Jews
Did not have their own territory
Lived as a minority in other nations
Anti-Semitism grew in 19th century
So did the Zionist movement - sought to establish a Jewish state in Palestine
Theodor Herzl - launched the Zionist movement in 1897
This will begin to explain how communities adopted our current means of identification.
Unified Germany = shift in balance of power in Europe
France was in decline and Germany rivaled GB as industrial power & tech leader
Military tactics became known worldwide
Germany began to flex its muscles and looked to become a new world power
Bismarck - instituted a series of reforms
state pensions & public health insurance plans that used the gov to protect the social welfare of the masses
Problems for new nations
economies disrupted by many years of warfare
large armies loyal to regional commanders (caudillos) instead of national government
What role should it have in civil life?
Ex. Mexico - politics was a struggle between conservatives/liberals
Target for foreign intervention by the US and Europe
Compare/contrast the formation of nation-states in Germany, Italy, & Latin America.
Analyze the continuities and changes that resulted from the formation of nation-states in Europe.